antipope

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antipope

[Lat.,=against the pope], person elected pope whose election was declared uncanonical and in opposition to a canonically chosen pontiff. Important antipopes were NovatianNovatian
, fl. 250, Roman priest, antipope (from 251), and theologian. He opposed the election of St. Cornelius as pope and set himself up instead. He gained followers throughout the empire because of his espousal of the idea that those fallen from grace by compromising their
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; Clement III (see Guibert of RavennaGuibert of Ravenna
, d. 1100, Italian churchman, antipope (1080–1100) Clement III, b. Parma. As imperial chancellor of Italy (1057–63), he consistently supported the Holy Roman emperor's opposition to papal reform efforts, and he led the party that repudiated Pope
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); Nicholas V (see Rainalducci, PietroRainalducci or Rainallucci, Pietro
, d. 1333, Italian churchman (b. Corvaro, near Rieti), antipope (1328–30) with the name Nicholas V.
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); Clement VII (see Robert of GenevaRobert of Geneva,
d. 1394, Genevan churchman, antipope (1378–94; see Schism, Great) with the name Clement VII. He was archbishop of Cambrai (1368) and was created (1371) a cardinal.
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); Benedict XIII (see Luna, Pedro deLuna, Pedro de
, 1328?–1423?, Aragonese churchman, antipope (1394–1417) with the name Benedict XIII. He was a doctor of canon law and as cardinal (1375) became an outstanding member of the Curia Romana.
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); John XXIII (or by a different count, John XXII; see Cossa, BaldassareCossa, Baldassare
, c.1370–1419, Neapolitan churchman, antipope (1410–15; see Schism, Great) with the name John XXIII. He had a military career before entering the service of the church.
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); and Felix V (see Amadeus VIIIAmadeus VIII
, 1383–1451, count (1391–1416) and duke (from 1416) of Savoy, antipope (1439–49) with the name Felix V. In 1434 he appointed his son regent of Savoy and retired to the hermitage of Ripaille, on Lake Geneva, which he had founded.
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), who was the last antipope.

antipope

a rival pope elected in opposition to one who has been canonically chosen
References in periodicals archive ?
After Clement VII and Urban VI died, the schism continued through their respective successors, Pope Boniface IX (who became the 'Roman' pope in 1389) and Benedict XIII (the Avignon antipope who was crowned in 1394).
Well, these antipopes were surely easy to distinguish from the real popes," one might say.
Distinguishing between legitimate popes and antipopes is something the church has had to do, off and on, for more than 12 centuries.
The real mystifying cases, however, are those that involve not antipopes but what I would call "co-popes," that is, popes considered legitimate by the Vatican, but whose terms of office overlap so that, according to the Vatican's own official list, there would have been two legitimate popes occupying the Chair of Peter at the same time.
The first antipope in history was a saint, Hippolytus (2217-235), who died in exile with the pope he had challenged, Pontian.
More than 10 have been rubbed out, including Benedict VI (973-74) who was strangled by a priest contracted by an antipope and John XII (955-64), elected pope at age 18 and killed at 27.
In the 900s the overthrown Leo V lasted 30 days and was murdered in jail; the deposed Benedict V ruled for a month and a day; Benedict VI for six months - antipope Boniface had him strangled; the deposed Landus lasted six months and 11 days; Leo V, seven months; the deposed John XIV, nine months, after which he was jailed and died of starvation or poisoning.
Sergius had the distinction of ordering, "out of pity," the murder of both the deposed Leo V and antipope Christopher, and of inaugurating the period known as "the pornocracy of the papacy," when easy women in powerful Roman families exerted sinister influence on popes and papal elections.
But at this precise point, 1,000 years ago, there were two more popes and an antipope to come before the arrival of the millennium.