Antonines


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Antonines

(ăn`tənīnz), collective name of certain Roman emperors of the 2d cent., namely Antoninus PiusAntoninus Pius
(Titus Aurelius Fulvus Boionius Arrius Antoninus) , A.D. 86–A.D. 161, Roman emperor (138–161). After a term as consul (120) he went as proconsul to Asia, where he governed with distinction.
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; his adopted sons, Marcus AureliusMarcus Aurelius
(Marcus Aelius Aurelius Antoninus) , 121–180, Roman emperor, named originally Marcus Annius Verus. He was a nephew of Faustina, the wife of Antoninus Pius, who adopted him. Marcus married Antoninus' daughter, another Faustina.
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 and Verus; and CommodusCommodus
(Lucius Aelius Aurelius Commodus) , 161–192, Roman emperor (180–192), son and successor of Marcus Aurelius. In 180, reversing his father's foreign policy, he concluded peace with the German and the Sarmatian tribes and returned to his licentious pleasures in
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.

Antonines

 

(Antonini). Dynasty of Roman emperors from 96 to 192, named after Antoninus Pius.

The following emperors belonged to the Antonine dynasty: Nerva (96–98), Trajan (98–117), Hadrian (117–138), Antoninus Pius (138–161), Marcus Aurelius (161–180), his cornier, Lucius Verus (161–169), and Corn-modus (180–192). In their domestic and foreign policy the Antonines reflected the interests of wide circles of Roman slaveowners in Italy as well as in the provinces. Their policy was directed at vitalizing the economic life of the empire (founding new cities, initiating construction work, introducing measures to support small-scale and middle-class landowners, broadening the social support of the Roman state and strengthening the position of slaveowners, granting liberal rights of citizenship to provincials, introducing many provincial slaveowners into the Roman Senate, and adopting measures to prevent uprisings of slaves). The first Antonines (especially Trajan) conducted an energetic foreign policy and annexed new territories to the empire (Dacia and Arabia in 106, and territories in Armenia and Mesopotamia during the years 114–115).

During Hadrian’s reign the Antonines began to enter a transition period, shifting their policy to one of defense of far-flung borders and the construction of defense installations. Under the Antonine dynasty the concept of monarchical power took on its final form, and a bureaucratic apparatus came into being. The time of the Antonines’ rule is considered as the period of the highest domestic and foreign flourishing of the Roman Empire. But from Hadrian’s time one could already observe symptoms of crisis in the slaveowning means of production, and from the time of Marcus Aurelius the might of the Roman Empire began to decline.

REFERENCES

Grimm, E. D. Issledovaniia po istorii razvitiia rimskoi imperatorskoi vlasti, vol. 2. St. Petersburg, 1901.
Rostovtzeff, M. The Social and Economic History of the Roman Empire. Oxford, 1926.

V. I. KUZISHCHIN

References in classic literature ?
Compared with the liberality and comfort of the ordinary life of the time, the order of the Roman Empire under the Antonines was local and limited.
In five short years the world and the scope of human life have undergone a retrogressive change as great as that between the age of the Antonines and the Europe of the ninth century.
Manuscripts in medicine, astronomy, science--the source of knowledge for all, the Latins, Byzantines, and Arabs, for the next fifteen hundred years--were written during the Age of Antonines.
There were the Antonines, of course, especially Marcus Aurelius--although imprudent paternal love prevailed over public dutifulness when he allowed Commodus to succeed him as emperor.
The late medieval ilver signet ring with au cross corresponds in date with that of other rings bearing this symbol, coinciding with the popularity of the Antonines in England nd Wales from the id-15th century the early 16th centu-"The late 15th-centuring from Carew is a e example of persondevotion on a finger ring.
In fact in many ways the first chapter, Digeser's "The Late Roman Empire from the Antonines to Constantine," makes a better introduction to the work as a whole than does Gerson's "General Introduction," in which he focuses more on his editorial principles and the relation of his work to his predecessor's.
These proceed chronologically, examining in turn: Sulla's treaty, the Mithradatic Wars, Carrhae, the Civil Wars, the Augustan period, the Julio-Claudians, Flavians, Trajan, Hadrian, the Antonines and the Severan period.
But if we gradually descend from the age of the Antonines to that of Theodosius, we shall learn from a chain of contemporary witnesses, that the royal palace and the temple of Serapis no longer contained the four, or the seven, hundred thousand volumes, which had been assembled by the curiosity and magnificence of the Ptolemies" (9: 441).
The director, Anthony Mann, was interested in Rome at what he thought was its most civilized peak: the end of the age of the Antonines, celebrated by Gibbon (a stated inspiration) as the great water-mark of Roman civilization that preceded a long and grinding decline.
After the Antonines, (5) outright pauperism did break out in the Roman Empire, and it hastened its decline; but in the days in which Jesus appeared and spoke there was simply no question of poverty as a general phenomenon in the sense in which we know it.
The Antonines will also contribute a contingent of singers, actors and dancers.
in the passage from Diario, where the Antonines are described in the following way: huel ypilhuantzitzinhuan y huel ytlacahuillohuan yn nican tlalticpac quinmocahuilitia yn ihcuac momiquilitzino omoteneuhtzino notlacomahuizthatzin S.