Antonio de Mendoza
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Mendoza, Antonio de(äntō`nyō dā māndō`thä), 1490?–1552, Spanish administrator, first viceroy of New Spain (1535–50) and viceroy of Peru (1551–52). Of noble family, Mendoza held high offices before going to Mexico, where his wise rule earned him the appellation "the good viceroy." He alleviated the condition of the indigenous people (though opposing enforcement of the New Laws of Bartolomé de Las CasasLas Casas, Bartolomé de
, 1474–1566, Spanish missionary and historian, called the apostle of the Indies. He went to Hispaniola with his father in 1502, and eight years later he was ordained a priest.
..... Click the link for more information. ), fostered religion, and encouraged education. He brought the first printing press to America at the request of Bishop ZumárragaZumárraga, Juan de
, 1468–1548, Spanish churchman, first bishop of Mexico, a Franciscan. Going to Mexico in 1528, he became prominent in governmental affairs and opposed Nuño de Guzmán and the audiencia.
..... Click the link for more information. . He quelled numerous revolts, notably the insurrection of indigenous peoples in Nueva Galicia (called the Mixtón WarMixtón War
, 1541, revolt of indigenous peoples against Spanish rule in Nueva Galicia, W Mexico. The conquest under Nuño de Guzmán had been particularly harsh and the encomienda system established obvious injustice.
..... Click the link for more information. ) in which Pedro de AlvaradoAlvarado, Pedro de
, 1486–1541, Spanish conquistador. He went to Hispaniola (1510), sailed in the expedition (1518) of Juan de Grijalva, and was the chief lieutenant of Hernán Cortés in the conquest of Mexico.
..... Click the link for more information. was killed. By fostering expeditions, especially those under Marcos de NizaMarcos de Niza
, c.1495–1558, missionary explorer in Spanish North America. A Franciscan friar, he served in Peru and Guatemala before going to Mexico. There he headed an expedition (1539) planned by Antonio de Mendoza, who had been excited by Cabeza de Vaca's stories of
..... Click the link for more information. and CoronadoCoronado, Francisco Vásquez de
, c.1510–1554, Spanish explorer. He went to Mexico with Viceroy Antonio de Mendoza and in 1538 was made governor of Nueva Galicia.
..... Click the link for more information. , he pushed exploration far northward. Industry and agriculture were also developed, bringing prosperity. In brief, he extended and consolidated the conquest begun by Hernán CortésCortés, Hernán,
or Hernando Cortez
, 1485–1547, Spanish conquistador, conqueror of Mexico. Expedition to Mexico
Cortés went (1504) first to Hispaniola and later (1511) accompanied Diego de Velázquez to Cuba.
..... Click the link for more information. , and established the sure basis for Spain's long rule in Mexico. Efforts to discredit and oust him, originating with Cortés, ended in failure. In 1551 he took office as viceroy of Peru and again opposed enforcement of the New Laws. The audiencia, however, overruled him.