Apache

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Apache

(əpăch`ē), Native North Americans of the Southwest composed of six culturally related groups. They speak a language that has various dialects and belongs to the AthabascanAthabascan
, Athapascan,
or Athapaskan
, group of related Native American languages forming a branch of the Nadene linguistic family or stock. In the preconquest period, Athabascan was a large and extensive group of tongues.
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 branch of the Nadene linguistic stock (see Native American languagesNative American languages,
languages of the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere and their descendants. A number of the Native American languages that were spoken at the time of the European arrival in the New World in the late 15th cent.
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), and their ancestors entered the area about 1100. The NavajoNavajo
or Navaho
, Native North Americans whose language belongs to the Athabascan branch of the Nadene linguistic stock (see Native American languages). A migration from the North to the Southwest area is thought to have occurred in the past because of an affiliation
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, who also speak an Athabascan language, were once part of the Western Apache; other groups E of the Rio Grande along the mountains were the Jicarilla, the Lipan, and the Mescalero groups. In W New Mexico and Arizona were the Western Apache, including the Chiricahua, the Coyotero, and the White Mountain Apache. The Kiowa Apache in the early southward migration attached themselves to the Kiowa, whose history they have since shared. Subsistence in historic times consisted of wild game, cactus fruits, seeds of wild shrubs and grass, livestock, grains plundered from settlements, and a small amount of horticulture. The social organization involved matrilocal residence, a rigorous mother-in-law avoidance pattern, and the husband's working for the wife's relatives.

Historically the Apache are known principally for their fierce fighting qualities. They successfully resisted the advance of Spanish colonization, but the acquisition of horses and new weapons, taken from the Spanish, led to increased intertribal warfare. The Eastern Apache were driven from their traditional plains area when (after 1720) they suffered defeat at the hands of the advancing ComancheComanche
, Native North Americans belonging to the Shoshonean group of the Uto-Aztecan branch of the Aztec-Tanoan linguistic stock (see Native American languages). They originated from a Basin-type culture and eventually adopted a Plains culture.
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. Relations between the Apache and the white settlers gradually worsened with the passing of Spanish rule in Mexico. By the mid-19th cent., when the United States acquired the region from Mexico, Apache lands were in the path of the American westward movement. The futile but strong resistance that lasted until the beginning of the 20th cent. brought national fame to several of the Apache leaders—CochiseCochise
, c.1815–1874, chief of the Chiricahua group of Apache in Arizona. He was friendly with the whites until 1861, when some of his relatives were hanged by U.S. soldiers for a crime they did not commit. Afterward he waged relentless war against the U.S.
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, GeronimoGeronimo
, c.1829–1909, leader of a Chiricahua group of the Apaches, b. Arizona. From his youth he participated in the forays of Cochise, Victorio, and other Apache leaders.
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, Mangas ColoradasMangas Coloradas
[Span.,=red sleeves], c.1797–1863, chief of the Mimbrenos group of Apache of SW New Mexico. Many of the Mimbrenos were massacred by trappers in 1837 as a result of the bounty for Apache scalps offered by the Mexican authorities.
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, and VictorioVictorio,
d. 1880, chief of the Ojo Caliente [warm spring] Apache, at one time a lieutenant of Mangas Coloradas. When his people were removed from their ancestral home to the desolate reservation at San Carlos, Victorio bolted (1880) for Mexico with a group of followers.
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.

Today the Apache, numbering some 50,000 in 1990, live mainly on reservations totaling over 3 million acres in Arizona and New Mexico and retain many tribal customs. Cattle, timber, tourism, and the development of mineral resources provide income. In 1982 the Apaches won a major Supreme Court test of their right to tax resources extracted from their lands.

Bibliography

See G. C. Baldwin, The Warrior Apaches (1965); D. L. Thrapp, The Conquest of Apacheria (1967); K. Basso and M. Opler, ed., Apachean Culture and Ethnology (1971); J. U. Terrell, Apache Chronicle (1972).

Apache

North American Indians of Southwest who fought against frontiersmen. [Am. Hist.: NCE, 123]

Apache

1. a member of a North American Indian people, formerly nomadic and warlike, inhabiting the southwestern US and N Mexico
2. the language of this people, belonging to the Athapascan group of the Na-Dene phylum

Apache

(World-Wide Web, project)
A open source HTTP server for Unix, Windows NT, and other platforms. Apache was developed in early 1995, based on code and ideas found in the most popular HTTP server of the time, NCSA httpd 1.3. It has since evolved to rival (and probably surpass) almost any other Unix based HTTP server in terms of functionality, and speed. Since April 1996 Apache has been the most popular HTTP server on the Internet, in May 1999 it was running on 57% of all web servers.

It features highly configurable error messages, DBM-based authentication databases, and content negotiation.

Latest version: 1.3.9, as of 1999-10-27.

http://apache.org/httpd.html.

FAQ.

Apache

(1) A very popular open source, Unix-based Web server from the Apache Software Foundation (www.apache.org). There are versions for all popular Unix flavors, as well as Windows, and it is considered the most widely used HTTP server on the Internet. Developed by a large group of volunteers, Apache was originally based on Version 1.3 of the HTTPd (HTTP daemon) server from the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA). First released in 1995, its name was coined after the Native American Apache tribe for their legendary endurance. Because there were many "patch" files added to the original body of code, "a patchy server" was also coined as a pun on the name.

The Apache Web server is only one of many products of the Apache Software Foundation, which manages ongoing projects in every aspect of open source computing.

(2) A PowerPC CPU from IBM optimized for commercial processing.
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