Umbelliferae

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Related to Apiaceae: Cucurbitaceae, Rutaceae

Umbelliferae

[‚əm·bə′lif·ə‚rē]
(botany)
A large family of aromatic dicotyledonous herbs in the order Umbellales; flowers have an ovary of two carpels, ripening to form a dry fruit that splits into two halves, each containing a single seed.

Umbelliferae

 

(Apiaceae), a family of dicotyledonous plants related to the ginseng family. They are herbaceous plants—sometimes shrubs and small trees in the tropics and subtropics—with alternate, usually dissected coleophyllous leaves and often hollow stems. The inflorescences are compound but sometimes simple umbels or heads. The small flowers are usually bisexual and regular. The calyx, consisting of five small denticles at the apex of the gynaecium, is often inconspicuous but may sometimes be well developed. There are five petals and stamens, with the petal apexes usu-ally curved inward. The pistil has a half-inferior bilocular gynaecium and large developed honeycups. The fruit is a cremocarp, usually breaking up into dry monospermous lobes (mericarps) which hang from either an entire or, more often, bipartite column (carpophore). The seed has an endosperm and a small embryo and is usually fused with the pericarp. All the organs have well-developed conceptacles for essential oils and resins.

The family comprises over 280 genera (about 3,000 species), distributed over almost the entire globe, especially in the nontropical regions of the northern hemisphere. There are 140 genera (about 750 species) in the USSR. The family includes many useful plants: food plants (carrots, parsley, celery, dill, parsnip, caraway, coriander), essential-oil plants (coriander, anise, fennel, caraway, ajowan), and medicinal and industrial plants. Some members of the family are very toxic, including hemlock, cowbane, and fool’s-parsley. A number of species grow as weeds among crops.

REFERENCE

Flora SSSR, vols. 16–17. Moscow-Leningrad, 1950–51.

V. N. TIKHOMIROV

References in periodicals archive ?
Variations in seed properties depending on seed position on the plant or within an inflorescence are characteristic of Apiaceae (Fenner & Thompson, 2005).
The 13 plant families, accounting for over 50% of the plants reported at Mississinewa Woods and all the sites referred to above, are the Apiaceae, Asteraceae, Brassicaceae, Caprifoliaceae, Cyperaceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae, Liliaceae, Poaceae, Polygonaceae, Ranunculaceae, Rosaceae, and Scrophulariaceae (see Appendix 1).
Toxicity of plants was used to test a scenario of coevolution by means escape and radiation (Berenbaum, 1983) by using plant family preference as a surrogate for plant toxicity: (0) larval host-plant unknown, (1) larvae feed on plants in the family Lamiaceae (do not produce furanocoumarins), (2) larvae fees on plants in the family Asteraceae (do not produce furanocoumarins), (3) larvae feed on plants in the family Apiaceae (produce furanocoumarins), and (4) larvae feed on multiple plants families known to produce furanocoumarins but is not a member of Apiaceae (such as Rutaceae and Fabaceae).
Composiçáo taxonômica Z o n a II I P1 P2 P1 P2 MAGNOLIOPHYTA AP Alchornea + Annonaceae + + Apocynaceae + + + + Aquifoliaceae (Ilex) + + Arecaceae + + + Bignoniaceae + + Boraginaceae + + Calliandra + Caprifoliaceae (Sambucus) + + Celtis + + Clethraceae + Chloranthaceae + Cunoniaceae + Euphorbiaceae + + + + Dalechampia + Fabaceae + + + Flacourticaceae + + Lauraceae + + + Loranthaceae + + Magnoliaceae + Malvaceae + Meliaceae + + + Mimosaceae + + Moraceae-Urticaceae + + Myrsinaceae (Rapanea) + + + Myrtaceae + + + Sapindaceae + + + Sapotaceae + Solanaceae + + Tiliaceae + + Trema + Ulmaceae + NAP Apiaceae + + Astemceae + + + + Brassicaceae + Cereales (cf.
A few grains of Apiaceae, Compositae, Rumex, Filipendula, Artemisia, and Chenopodiaceae are found.
By contrast, the more recent study of Magallon and Sanderson (2001) estimated an increase in the diversification rate for Apiales since its divergence, but this rate may be attributed to recent radiations in the more speciose Apiaceae (~75 % of the 4,898 species counted in the study) compared to the other families of the order, which appear to be older but have fewer extant species (e.
Meadow Family Origin Scientific Name Aceraceae Native Acer saccharinum Anacardiaceae Native Toxicodendron radicans Apiaceae Introduced Torilis arvensis Asteraceae Native Ambrosia artemisifolia Asteraceae Native Ambrosia trida Asteraceae Native Aster praealtus Asteraceae -- Aster sp.
Sesquiterpene lactones (STL) are a group of bioactive substances consisting of a broad spectrum of sesquiterpenes which have been identified in a number of plant families such as Acanthaceae, Apiaceae, Lauraceae, Magnoliaceae, Rutaceae, and Asteraceae (Saeidnia et al.
The dimerous gynoecium in Apiaceae can have a superimposed pentamerous symmetry from the other floral whorls and thus be monosymmetric (instead of disymmetric).
Serial Scientific name Family Part extracted number of plant 1 Trachyspermum ammi Apiaceae Fruit (L.