apostle

(redirected from Apostle (disambiguation))
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Wikipedia.

apostle

(əpŏs`əl) [Gr.,=envoy], one of the prime missionaries of Christianity. The apostles of the first rank are saints PeterPeter, Saint,
d. A.D. 64?, most prominent of the Twelve Apostles, listed first in the Gospels, and traditionally the first bishop of Rome. His original name was Simon, but Jesus gave him the nickname Cephas [Aramaic, = rock], which was translated into Greek as Petros [Gr.
..... Click the link for more information.
, AndrewAndrew, Saint
[Gr.,=manly], in the New Testament, one of the Twelve Apostles, brother of Peter. According to tradition he was a missionary in Asia Minor, Macedonia, and S Russia. According to the apocryphal Acts of Andrew, he was martyred at Pátrai in Greece.
..... Click the link for more information.
, JamesJames, Saint,
d. c.A.D. 43, in the Bible, one of the Twelve Apostles, called St. James the Greater. He was the son of Zebedee and the brother of St. John; these brothers were the Boanerges, or Sons of Thunder. St. James was killed by Herod Agrippa I. Veneration of St.
..... Click the link for more information.
 (the Greater), JohnJohn, Saint,
one of the Twelve Apostles, traditional author of the fourth Gospel, three letters, and the Book of Revelation (see John, Gospel according to Saint; John, letters; Revelation); it is highly unlikely, however, that all five works were written by the same author.
..... Click the link for more information.
, ThomasThomas, Saint,
one of the Twelve Apostles, called Didymus. According to John, he refused to believe in the resurrection until he saw Jesus' wounds; hence the expression "doubting Thomas." John 11.16; 14.5; 20.24–29; 21.2.
..... Click the link for more information.
, JamesJames, Saint,
in the Bible, one of the Twelve Apostles, called St. James the Less or St. James the Little. He was the son of Alphaeus; his mother, Mary, was one of those at the cross and tomb. The Western Church identifies him with Saint James, "the Lord's brother.
..... Click the link for more information.
 (the Less), JudeJude, Saint,
or Saint Judas
[Jude is an English form to distinguish him from Judas Iscariot], in the New Testament, one of the Twelve Apostles, also called Thaddaeus. He is thought to have been the son or brother of St. James the Less.
..... Click the link for more information.
 (or Thaddaeus), PhilipPhilip, Saint,
one of the Twelve Apostles. Like Peter and Andrew, he came from Bethsaida in Galilee. He is mentioned several times in the New Testament (Mat. 10.3; John 1.43–51; 6.5,7; 12.21,22; 14.8,9; Acts 1.13).
..... Click the link for more information.
, BartholomewBartholomew, Saint
, in the New Testament, one of the Twelve Apostles, usually identified with Nathanael. Nathanael is a given name, Bartholomew an Aramaic patronymic meaning "son of Talmai." Tradition makes N India his missionary field and Armenia the place of his martyrdom by flaying.
..... Click the link for more information.
, MatthewMatthew, Saint,
in the New Testament, one of the Twelve Apostles. Also called Levi, he was a publican (tax collector) from Capernaum. Since the 2d cent. the first Gospel (see Matthew, Gospel according to) has been attributed to him, but the attribution is almost certainly
..... Click the link for more information.
, SimonSimon, Saint
, in the New Testament, one of the Twelve Apostles. In the Gospels he is called the Canaanite or Cananaean or Zelotes, synonymous terms referring probably to association with the sect of Zealots. Feast (with St. Jude): Oct. 28.
..... Click the link for more information.
, and MatthiasMatthias, Saint
, in the Bible, apostle chosen by lot to fill the place of Judas Iscariot. He is said in ancient tradition to have died a martyr at Colchis. Feast: Feb. 24.
..... Click the link for more information.
 (replacing Judas IscariotJudas Iscariot
, Jesus' betrayer, possibly from the village of Kerioth, the only Judaean disciple among the Twelve, and, according to the Gospel of St. John, their treasurer.
..... Click the link for more information.
). Traditionally the list of the Twelve Disciples includes Judas and not Matthias, and the list of the Twelve Apostles includes Matthias and not Judas. St. PaulPaul, Saint,
d. A.D. 64? or 67?, the apostle to the Gentiles, b. Tarsus, Asia Minor. He was a Jew. His father was a Roman citizen, probably of some means, and Paul was a tentmaker by trade. His Jewish name was Saul.
..... Click the link for more information.
 is always classed as an apostle, and so sometimes are a few others, such as St. BarnabasBarnabas, Saint
, Christian apostle. He was a Cypriot and a relative of St. Mark; his forename was Joseph. Several passages in the New Testament relate that Barnabas was a teacher and prophet in the church at Antioch and the companion of St. Paul on his first missionary journey.
..... Click the link for more information.
. The principal missionary to any country is often called its apostle, e.g., St. Patrick is the apostle of Ireland, and St. Augustine of Canterbury the apostle of England. For the Apostles' Creed, see creedcreed
[Lat. credo=I believe], summary of basic doctrines of faith. The following are historically important Christian creeds.

1 The Nicene Creed, beginning, "I believe in one God the Father Almighty, maker of heaven and earth, and of all things visible and
..... Click the link for more information.
; for the Teaching of the Apostles, see DidacheDidache
[Gr.,=teaching], early Christian work written in Greek, called also The Teaching of the Twelve Apostles. Dates for its composition suggested by scholars have ranged from A.D. 50 to A.D. 150.
..... Click the link for more information.
; for the earliest account of their activities, see Acts of the ApostlesActs of the Apostles,
book of the New Testament. It is the only 1st-century account of the expansion of Christianity in its earliest period. It was written in Greek anonymously as early as c.A.D. 65, but more likely later in the century, as a sequel to the Gospel of St. Luke.
..... Click the link for more information.
.

Bibliography

See E. J. Goodspeed, The Twelve: The Story of Christ's Apostles (1957, repr. 1962).

apostle

1. one of the 12 disciples chosen by Christ to preach his gospel
2. any prominent Christian missionary, esp one who first converts a nation or people
3. Mormon Church a member of a council of twelve officials appointed to administer and preside over the Church