apostrophe

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apostrophe

An apostrophe is a punctuation mark that primarily serves to indicate either grammatical possession or the contraction of two words. It can also sometimes be used to pluralize irregular nouns, such as single letters, abbreviations, and single-digit numbers.
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apostrophe,

figure of speech in which an absent person, a personified inanimate being, or an abstraction is addressed as though present. The term is derived from a Greek word meaning "a turning away," and this sense is maintained when a narrative or dramatic thread is broken in order to digress by speaking directly to someone not there, e.g., "Envy, be silent and attend!"—Alexander Pope, "On a Certain Lady at Court."

apostrophe:

see punctuationpunctuation
[Lat.,=point], the use of special signs in writing to clarify how words are used; the term also refers to the signs themselves. In every language, besides the sounds of the words that are strung together there are other features, such as tone, accent, and pauses,
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; abbreviationabbreviation,
in writing, arbitrary shortening of a word, usually by cutting off letters from the end, as in U.S. and Gen. (General). Contraction serves the same purpose but is understood strictly to be the shortening of a word by cutting out letters in the middle, the omission
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Apostrophe

 

comma written above the line, used in writing for various functions: (1) In French, Italian, English, and other languages the apostrophe is used to indicate the omission of a vowel (the French I’homme instead of le homme, the English “don’t” instead of “do not,” and so on).

(2) In the orthography of the Nenets language it is used to indicate glottal stops.

(3) The apostrophe is used in transcription to convey glottal stops (in Semitic and other languages), to indicate soft consonants, and so on.

(4) In Russian writing it is used in places where foreign languages use apostrophes in proper names (Jeanne d’Arc, O’Casey); in the 1920’s and 1930’s the apostrophe was also used in place of the “hard sign” Ъ (pod’ezd instead of podЪezd).


Apostrophe

 

a word or group of words naming the person or object to which speech is addressed. Apostrophe may be used within or outside a sentence. It is not bound grammatically to the other parts of a sentence. Apostrophe is widely used in literary language to convey dialogue. For example:

(Famusov:) “Sergei Sergeich, can this be you!”

A. S. Griboedov, Woe From Wit

It is also used in the speech of the narrator to address an individual. For example:

“And you, exile,” I thought, “weep on your vast, free steppes.”

M. Iu. Lermontov, Bela

Or it may be used to address an inanimate object:

“Loosen up, shoulder! Swing, arm!

You, wind, blow in the face from afternoon on!”

A. V. Kol’tsov, “The Mower”

apostrophe

References in periodicals archive ?
The QCA proposes a maximum C-grade in GCSE English for any pupil who does not 'punctuate accurately using commas, apostrophes and inverted commas'.
Apostrophes to intimate friends, whether present or absent, share the familiar conversational feel of those to close relatives.
Grammar campaigners have used marker pens to fill in allegedly missing apostrophes in Cambridge, after the city council ruled they should be removed to avoid confusing emergency services.
COUNCILLORS in Devon are considering banning apostrophes from their street signs because of the "potential confusion" the punctuation causes.
Almost a third cannot use apostrophes correctly, the Daily Star reported.
We may lose things such as apostrophes but we always gain more than we lose in language.
A COUNCIL'S decision to stop using apostrophes on road signs has sparked uproar.
Moseley councillor Mullaney is on something of a high since his barmy plan to abolish apostrophes went global.
The man who to date is renowned solely for his inability to make a clear decision on the Tyburn Road bus lane issue has now concluded that road signs and place names should not have apostrophes.
IF grocers have apostrophes, what do headline writers have?
EXAMS chiefs have unveiled plans to stop pupils getting good GCSE grades if they use apostrophes incorrectly or put commas in the wrong place.
First off, Norman Miller, of Whickham, has been in touch not once, but twice, to point our rogue apostrophes, or should that be apostrophe's