Appetite


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Appetite

 

a pleasant sensation associated with the need for food; also, a physiological mechanism regulating the intake of food substances into the organism. After long deprivation of food, appetite becomes the sensation of hunger.

Appetite is closely related to the activity of the feeding center, primarily those parts of the feeding center located in the hypothalamus and in the cortex of the cerebral hemispheres. Appetite is determined by information coming to the feeding center about nutritive conditions, the intake and assimilation of food, and the consumption of food reserves. Appetite is not caused by the exhaustion of the organism’s food reserves; rather, appetite gives warning beforehand of the exhaustion of food reserves, so that the many stimuli that make up the appetite can change their signals in accordance with a change in the dietary regimen. Stimulation of the appetite depends on the amount of products of intermediary metabolism in the blood, the level of assimilation of these products by the cells, the amount of water in the tissues, the condition of the fat reserves, the contraction of the empty stomach, the lowering of body temperature, and the many external stimuli associated with conditioned reflex activity (the appearance and odor of food, habitual surroundings, and others). Inhibition of the appetite results from eating, distension of the walls of the stomach by food, absorption and assimilation of the products of digestion, and change in the hormonal balance.

General appetite, that is, appetite for any food, is distinguished from specialized or selective forms of appetite which reflect the organism’s need for proteins, fats, carbohydrates, mineral substances, and vitamins. Appetite makes possible the regulation of the need for specific foods in quantities required by the organism. It also promotes the digestion and assimilation of food by stimulating the secretion of saliva and gastric juices. A good appetite is often a sign of physical and mental well-being. Disorders of the appetite are symptomatic of many diseases. A decrease in appetite (anorexia), a pathological increase in appetite (bulimia), or perverted appetite may be found in cases of brain tumors, many nervous and psychological disorders, diseases of the digestive tract, avitaminosis, and endocrine diseases. Normalization of appetite depends on treatment of the basic disease and observance of the proper dietary regimen.

REFERENCES

Anokhin, P. K. “Uzlovye voprosy ν izuchenii vysshei nervnoi deiatel’nosti.” In Problemy vysshei nervnoi deiatel’nosti. Moscow, 1949.
Ugolev, A. M., and V. G. Kassil’. “Fiziologiia appetita.” Uspekhi sovremennoi biologii, 1961, vol. 51, issue 3.
Ugolev, A. M., and V.G. Kassil’. “Pishchevoe povedenie i reguliat-siia gomeostaza.” In Slozhnye formy povedeniia. Moscow-Leningrad, 1965.
Chernigovskii, V. N. Znachenie interotseptivnoi signalizatsii ν pishchevom povedenii zhivotnykh. Moscow-Leningrad, 1962.

V. G. KASSIL’ and A. M. UGOLEV

References in classic literature ?
I don't weigh a bit more," said I, "nor as much; and my appetite may be better in the evening when you are here, but it is worse in the morning when you are away
After my fellowship of toil and impracticable schemes with the dreamy brethren of Brook Farm; after living for three years within the subtle influence of an intellect like Emerson's; after those wild, free days on the Assabeth, indulging fantastic speculations, beside our fire of fallen boughs, with Ellery Channing; after talking with Thoreau about pine-trees and Indian relics in his hermitage at Walden; after growing fastidious by sympathy with the classic refinement of Hillard's culture; after becoming imbued with poetic sentiment at Longfellow's hearthstone -- it was time, at length, that I should exercise other faculties of my nature, and nourish myself with food for which I had hitherto had little appetite.
He had no appetite, and they could not afford to tempt him with delicacies.
It de- ceives the eye; you think it is a new fact; it gives you the idea that the court is carrying on like everything; this excites you, and you drain the whole column, with a good appetite, and perhaps never notice that it's a barrel of soup made out of a single bean.
The door to the surgeon's room stood open, meantime, but the cutting, sewing, splicing, and bandaging going on in there in plain view did not seem to disturb anyone's appetite.
His appetite was gone with his property and his self-respect.
Tom divided the cake and Becky ate with good appetite, while Tom nibbled at his moiety.
Then if you'll let her go to Milltown with the Cobbs on Wednesday, that'll hearten her up a little and coax back her appetite.
Her health seemed for the moment completely deranged appetite quite goneand though there were no absolutely alarming symptoms, nothing touching the pulmonary complaint, which was the standing apprehension of the family, Mr.
He was a blessing to all the juvenile part of the neighbourhood, for in summer he was for ever forming parties to eat cold ham and chicken out of doors, and in winter his private balls were numerous enough for any young lady who was not suffering under the unsatiable appetite of fifteen.
I was carried into an inn, where the guard wanted me to have some dinner; but, as I had no appetite, he left me in an immense room with a fireplace at each end, a chandelier pendent from the ceiling, and a little red gallery high up against the wall filled with musical instruments.
Perhaps," said Colin, prompted by a sudden inspiration, "perhaps it is an unnatural appetite.