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system of learning a craft or trade from one who is engaged in it and of paying for the instruction by a given number of years of work. The practice was known in ancient Babylon, Egypt, Greece, and Rome, as well as in modern Europe and to some extent in the United States. Typically, in medieval Europe, a master craftsman agreed to instruct a young man, to give him shelter, food, and clothing, and to care for him during illness. The apprentice would bind himself to work for the master for a given time. After that time he would become a journeyman, working for a master for wages, or he set up as a master himself. The medieval guildsguilds
or gilds,
economic and social associations of persons engaging in the same business or craft, typical of Western Europe in the Middle Ages. Membership was by profession or craft, and the primary function was to establish local control over that profession or
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 supervised the relation of master and apprentice and decided the number of apprentices in a given guild. The Industrial Revolution, with its introduction of machinery, put an end to most of these guilds, but apprenticeship continues in highly skilled trades, at times competing with vocational training schools (see vocational educationvocational education,
training designed to advance individuals' general proficiency, especially in relation to their present or future occupations. The term does not normally include training for the professions.
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The terms of apprenticeship are regulated by many labor agreements as well as by law. The U.S. system of apprenticeships, established in 1937, is modeled on a 1911 Wisconsin law that named 200 occupations that benefited from apprenticeship programs. Some, such as plumbing and carpentry, required a mandatory apprenticeship period. The passage of the Manpower Development and Training Act in 1962 further encouraged apprenticeship programs. In Great Britain apprenticeship programs sometimes include outside schooling at company expense. The apprenticeship programs in continental Europe today differ from those in Great Britain and the United States by offering training in a wide range of fields, not just the skilled crafts.


See A. Beveridge, Apprenticeship Now (1963); N. F. Duffy, ed., Essays on Apprenticeship (1967); P. Mapp, Women in Apprenticeship (1973).


References in periodicals archive ?
The apprenticeship programme therefore offers enormous benefits to companies such as SABIC, and SABIC reflects this by taking a leading role through Craig Hargreaves, in creating a framework that will improve the apprenticeship system to the benefit of the whole science industry.
The latter is an apprenticeship system that combines between theory and practice as well as company and vocational schools.
114) As Marcovich phrased it, "a single morally depraved element would in a short time be in a position, despite the keenest observation, to destroy the most hard-won advantages in the reform of many"(115) Involved primarily in unskilled and semiskilled jobs in a world increasing emancipated from the previous controls and safeguards provided by the apprenticeship system, their sheer numbers, greater economic independence and increased presence on the streets led to social disquiet.
South Lanarkshire Council is a good example of an employer dedicated to the Modern Apprenticeship system.
The Modern Apprenticeship training programme takes the benefits of the old apprenticeship system and links them to the benefits of vocational training.
Louis - may have an answer by returning to the traditional apprenticeship system.
Therefore, this innovative project seeks to improve the quality of the traditional apprenticeship system in Ghana by linking micro and small businesses with the formal TVET system.
But we need even more companies to get involved and the Government can help by cutting more red tape, ensuring the apprenticeship system is truly based on the needs of firms and giving business real purchasing power by putting funding directly in the hands of employers on the ground.
The vast majority of schools know little or nothing of the apprenticeship system.
Because of my own work experience I did an extensive piece of research into the British apprenticeship system.
The Carrs Lane minister puts much of the blame for juvenile depravity on the breakdown of the apprenticeship system.
Apprenticeship consultants are available to guide companies through the registered apprenticeship development process from initial information to full recognition in the National Registered Apprenticeship System.