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April:

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Seventh (April) All-Russian Conference of the Russian Social Democratic Labor Party, (Bolshevik)

 

the first legal conference of the Bolshevik Party, held in Petrograd from Apr. 24 to Apr. 29 (May 7–12), 1917, and attended by 133 delegates with a casting vote and 18 with a consultative vote, representing up to 80,000 party members and 78 major party organizations. On the eve of the conference there was an internal party discussion of V. I. Lenin’s “April Theses,” which charted the party’s course toward the socialist revolution.

The agenda included Lenin’s Report on the Current Situation, which covered issues such as the war and the Provisional Government; V. P. Nogin’s report on the peace conference and his report on the party’s attitude toward the soviets of workers’ and soldiers’ deputies; Lenin’s report on revising the party program; G. E. Zinoviev’s report on the situation in the International and the party’s tasks, as well as his report on uniting the Social Democratic internationalist organizations; a report by Lenin on the agrarian question; and a report by J. V. Stalin on the national question. Also on the agenda were the issue of the Constituent Assembly, the organizational questions, regional reports, and the election of a new Central Committee. The work of the conference was guided by Lenin, who delivered reports, spoke more than 20 times during the debates, and wrote almost all the draft resolutions.

In his Report on the Current Situation, Lenin gave a comprehensive explanation of the party’s political course in preparing for and carrying out a socialist revolution. L. B. Kamenev gave a supplementary report in which he attempted to prove that the bourgeois democratic revolution had not yet been completed and that Russia was not yet ready for a socialist revolution. He was supported by A. I. Rykov, who asserted that the objective conditions for the victory of the socialist revolution did not exist in Russia and that socialism would have to come from the West. In his summary Lenin showed Kamenev and Rykov’s position to be completely untenable. The Seventh (April) All-Russian Conference of the RSDLP(B) rejected Kamenev’s point of view and adopted Lenin’s resolution, which asserted that the proletariat of Russia should head the revolution and explain to the people the urgency of carrying out a number of practical tasks, such as nationalization of the land, the establishment of state control over all banks and their amalgamation into a single central bank, and the establishment of control over the insurance companies and major capitalist syndicates. The conference declared that these measures, as well as universal labor conscription, could be carried out by the soviets as soon as they became the bodies of the people’s power.

The conference resolution On the Soviets of Workers’ and Soldiers’ Deputies explained the slogan “All power to the soviets” and the party’s task of strengthening and extending its influence in the soviets. Under the conditions of dual power, the conference proposed a policy of developing the revolution peacefully and having the soviets take power both in the center and at the local level. The resolution On the Attitude Toward the Provisional Government noted the necessity of carrying out long-term work to develop class consciousness and rally the urban and rural proletariat, of breaking with the policy of confidence in the Provisional Government, and of organizing and arming the proletariat and strengthening its ties with the army, to provide the most important guarantee of the peaceful transfer of power to the soviets.

In the resolution On the War the Seventh (April) All-Russian Conference of the RSDLP(B) emphasized that the imperialist war could be ended only by the transfer of state power to the soviets, which would accept the task of making peace. The same resolution pointed out that the Bolshevik Party supported neither the war, which was imperialist in character, nor the Provisional Government, which was continuing the policies of the tsarist regime. The conference dissociated itself from “revolutionary defensism,” which it defined as one of the main obstacles to a speedy termination of the war.

In his report on the agrarian question Lenin explained the demands for confiscation of the landlords’ estates and the nationalization of all the land. Carrying out these policies would eliminate the class of landlords and strike a blow against the bourgeoisie, since a large proportion of the landlords’ estates were mortgaged to the banks. The party advised the peasants to seize the land immediately and in an organized manner, without waiting for the Constituent Assembly, despite the urg-ings of the SR’s (Socialist Revolutionaries) and Mensheviks.

The report by Stalin and the conference resolution on the national question strengthened and developed the party’s programmatic demands for full equality of all nations (natsii, nations in the historical sense) and languages. G. L. Piatakov gave a supplementary report in which he proposed considering the national question from the standpoint that the victory of the socialist revolution is only possible if it occurs simultaneously throughout the world, or at least in the majority of countries. Therefore, from an economic standpoint, the independence of nations is outdated and obsolete, and the struggle for socialism should be waged under the slogan “Down with frontiers.” Pia-takov’s dogmatic, adventuristic slogan would have led to anarchism. Lenin remarked: “We maintain that the state is necessary, and a state presupposes borders. What does ‘Down with frontiers’ mean? It is the beginning of anarchy” (Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 31, p. 435). F. E. Dzerzhinskii and F. I. Mak-haradze, who also held erroneous views on the national question, believed that the demand for the right of nations to self-determination was in contradiction to internationalism.

The Seventh (April) All-Russian Conference of the RSDLP(B) adopted Lenin’s resolution on the national question, which called for the recognition of the right of all nations constituting the Russian Empire to secede freely and form their own independent states. At the same time, the conference pointed out that this right should not be confused with the advisability for a nation to secede at a particular time. “The party of the proletariat must decide the latter question quite independently in each particular case, having regard to the interests of social development as a whole and the interests of the class struggle of the proletariat for socialism” (ibid., p. 440).

In reports from the localities delegates informed the conference of the party’s growing influence and of the development of the revolution throughout the country. The Seventh (April) All-Russian Conference of the RSDLP(B) decided that it was not possible to unite with parties and groups holding “revolutionary defensist” positions and stressed the need for rapprochement and unification with groups and tendencies actually based on internationalism and dissociated from the policy of forming a bloc with the bourgeoisie.

The conference adopted Lenin’s resolution on revising the party program, in which Lenin outlined the direction in which the program should be changed. The resolution empowered the Central Committee to draft a new program and present it to the next party congress for approval.

In adopting the resolution On the Situation in the International, the delegates made the mistake of agreeing to Zinoviev’s proposal for remaining in the Zimmerwald movement and participating in a conference of its supporters. Lenin, who voted against the resolution, wrote: “By remaining in Zimmerwald we (even against our will) are helping delay the creation of the Third International; we are indirectly hampering its foundation, being burdened with the dead ballast of the ideologically and politically dead Zimmerwald” (ibid., p. 185).

A nine-member Central Committee was elected by secret ballot at the conference.

In the importance of the questions it acted on and in its highly representative character, the Seventh (April) All-Russian Conference of the RSDLP(B) played the role of a party congress. It rallied the Bolshevik Party around a Leninist platform and charted the party’s course toward developing the bourgeois democratic revolution into a socialist revolution.

REFERENCES

Lenin, V. I. Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 31. (See also the Index Volume, part 1, pp. 30–31.)
KPSS ν rezoliutsiiakh i resheniiakh s”ezdov, konferenlsii i plenumov TsK, 8th ed., vol. 1. Moscow, 1970.
Sed’maia (Aprel’skaia) Vserossiiskaia konferentsiia RSDRP (bol’-shevikov), Petrogradskaia obshchegorodskaia konferentsiia RSDRP (bol’shevikov); Aprel’ 1917 g.: Protokoly. Moscow, 1958.
Istoriia KPSS, vol. 3, book 1. Moscow, 1967.

A. M. SOVOKIN

References in classic literature ?
This speed was kept up for several days, and in the evening of the 9th of April we sighted the most westerly point of South America that forms Cape San Roque.
20th of April, in contriving where and how to remove my habitation.
I bought an "automaton" once in April, and I did have a time with it
Altogether, what between March winds, April showers, and the entire absence of May flowers, spring is not a success in cities.
In the first ecstasy of having a garden all my own, and in my burning impatience to make the waste places blossom like a rose, I did one warm Sunday in last year's April during the servants' dinner hour, doubly secure from the gardener by the day and the dinner, slink out with a spade and a rake and feverishly dig a little piece of ground and break it up and sow surreptitious ipomaea, and run back very hot and guilty into the house, and get into a chair and behind a book and look languid just in time to save my reputation.
While I was stooping over a group of hollyhocks planted on the top of the only thing in the shape of a hill the garden possesses, the April baby, who had been sitting pensive on a tree stump close by, got up suddenly and began to run aimlessly about, shrieking and wringing her hands with every symptom of terror.
It was not until the 25th of April that the two parties of trappers broke up their encampments, and undertook to cross over the southwest end of the mountain by a pass explored by their scouts.
The weather was propitious; the air, though still damp, began to be tempered by those pale rays of the April sun which, being the first, appear so congenial, although so pale.
He hoped that perhaps he might see, in the light of the April sun, Rosa or the tulip, the two lost objects of his love.
It commonly opens about the first of April, a week or ten days later than Flint's Pond and Fair Haven, beginning to melt on the north side and in the shallower parts where it began to freeze.
In 1845 Walden was first completely open on the 1st of April; in '46, the 25th of March; in '47, the 8th of April; in '51, the 28th of March; in '52, the 18th of April; in '53, the 23d of March; in '54, about the 7th of April.