Apsheron Peninsula


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Apsheron Peninsula

 

a peninsula on the western shore of the Caspian Sea, opposite the eastern extremity of the Greater Caucasus, in the Azerbaijan SSR. It extends 60 km into the sea and is up to 30 km wide. It is composed mainly of Neocene and Anthropogenic deposits. The surface is a rolling plain (elevation, 50–165 m) with brachyanticlinal rises and mud peaks (up to 310 m high in the west) and with undrained hollows that have solonchaks and salt lakes; there are patches of shifting sands. There are rich deposits of petroleum and natural gas.

The climate is dry and subtropical. The average January temperature is 3°C, and the average July temperature is 25°C. The total annual precipitation ranges from 140 mm in the southwestern part to 250 mm in the north. Strong winds (the nord) are frequent. The plant life is of the ephemeral semidesert type, with grassy vegetation in the winter.

The Apsheron Peninsula is an important industrial region, with petroleum-extraction and petroleum-refining industry Vineyards and melon crops are widespread on the floodplains (the flooding is due to subterranean water).

N. A. GVOZDETSKII

The balneological health resorts of Surakhany and Shi-khovo (with hot—64°-65° C—mineral springs, a balneological clinic, and a hospital); the climatic seaside health resorts of Mardakian, Buzovna, Zagul’ba, and Vil’giakh (with solar and fresh-air therapy, sea bathing, a sand beach, childrens’ sanatoriums—a tuberculosis sanatorium, a sanatorium for those suffering from rheumatism, and a bone and tuberculosis sanatorium—a vacation home, and Pioneer camps); Pirshagi (with a great deal of greenery, therapeutic grapes and figs, and Pioneer camps); and Turkiany (with a vacation home) are located on the western shore of the Caspian Sea, near Baku.

References in periodicals archive ?
He said, Together with the construction of substations and transmission lines, including Zabrat substation (360 MVA), this will improve the power supply of the Apsheron Peninsula.
Local scientists consider the Apsheron Peninsula, including Baku and the Caspian Sea, to be the ecologically most devastated area in the world because of severe air, soil and water pollution.
Baku - the city of winds - lies on the Apsheron Peninsula that juts into the Caspian Sea.
High death rates were also reported in May and June along the Apsheron peninsula of Azerbaijan and the Turkmenistan coast.
The onshore fields of Kyursangya and Karabaghli, in the Lower Kura Basin on the Apsheron peninsula and 100 km west of Baku, are to be re-developed.
The explored parts of the Shamakhy-Gobustan Basin and the nearby Apsheron peninsula in the Lower Oligocene were surrounded by relatively low land.
The CP part of the project has concentrated on the Apsheron peninsula, where most of the gas is transported and used.
Many scientists believe the Apsheron Peninsula and the Caspian Sea to be one of the worst ecological contaminated areas in the world due to various pollutants including oil from spills.
The sands and sandstones in the Pre-Caspian-Guba and Gobustan regions and, to some extent, on the Apsheron peninsula, are abundant in gas and oil.
The CP part of the project will be concentrated in the Apsheron peninsula where most of the gas is transported and used.
Apart from its stakes in AIOC and other Azeri ventures (see above), LUKoil also leads the project to rehabilitate and develop the onshore Govsany-Zykh fields on the Apsheron Peninsula at the cost of $250m.