Apulia

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Apulia

(əpyo͞o`lēə), Ital. Puglia, region (1991 pop. 4,031,885), 7,469 sq mi (19,345 sq km), S Italy, bordering on the Adriatic Sea in the east and the Strait of Otranto and Gulf of Taranto in the south. Its southern portion, a peninsula, forms the heel of the Italian "boot." BariBari
, city (1991 pop. 342,309), capital of Bari prov. and of Apulia, S Italy, on the Adriatic Sea. It is a major seaport and an industrial and commercial center. It is connected by road, rail, and ship to other Adriatic ports and is now connected by road to Naples.
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 is the capital of the region, which is divided into Bari, Brindisi, Foggia, Lecce, and Taranto provs. (named for their capitals). Apulia is mostly a plain; its low coast, however, is broken by the mountainous Garagano Peninsula in the north, and there are mountains in the north central part of the region. Farming was the chief occupation, but industry has expanded rapidly. Farm products include olives, grapes, cereals, almonds, figs, tobacco, and livestock (sheep, pigs, cattle, and goats). Manufactures include refined petroleum, chemicals, cement, iron and steel, processed food, plastics, and wine. Fishing is pursued in the Adriatic and in the Gulf of Taranto. The scarcity of water has long been an acute problem in Apulia, and it is necessary to carry drinking water by aqueduct across the Apennines from the Sele River in Campania. In ancient times only the northern part of the region was called Apulia; the southern peninsula was known as Calabria, a name later used to designate the toe of the Italian boot. The region was settled by several Italic peoples and by Greek colonists before it was conquered (4th cent. B.C.) by Rome. After the fall of Rome, Apulia was held successively by the Goths, the Lombards, and the Byzantines. In the 11th cent. it was conquered by the Normans; Robert GuiscardRobert Guiscard
, c.1015–1085, Norman conqueror of S Italy, a son of Tancred de Hauteville (see Normans). Robert joined (c.1046) his brothers in S Italy and fought with them to expel the Byzantines.
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 set up the duchy of Apulia in 1059. After the Norman conquest of Sicily (late 11th cent.), Palermo replaced MelfiMelfi
, town (1991 pop. 15,757), in Basilicata, S Italy. It is an agricultural and tourist center noted for its wine. In 1041 it was made the first capital of the Norman county of Apulia. At Melfi Emperor Frederick II promulgated (c.
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 (just west of present-day Apulia) as the center of Norman power, and Apulia became a mere province, first of the kingdom of Sicily, then of the kingdom of Naples. From the late 12th to early 13th cent. Apulia was a favorite residence of the Hohenstaufen emperors, notably Frederick II. The coast later was occupied at times by the Turks and by the Venetians. In 1861 the region joined Italy. The feudal system long prevailed in the rural areas of Apulia; social and agrarian reforms proceeded slowly from the 19th cent. and accelerated in the mid-20th cent. The characteristic Apulian architecture of the 11th–13th cent. reflects Greek, Arab, Norman, and Pisan influences. There are universities at Bari and Lecce.

Apulia

a region of SE Italy, on the Adriatic. Capital: Bari. Pop.: 4 023 957 (2003 est.). Area: 19 223 sq. km (7422 sq. miles)
References in periodicals archive ?
Yet while Thurii and Herakleia are no longer regarded as significant centres of red-figure pottery production, Taras continues to be regarded as the initial and primary production centre of Apulian red-figure, despite gaps in our archaeological evidence that are really no less serious today than they were in Lenormant's time.
The lack of Apulian red-figure finds at Taras--downplayed by the contemporary non-Italian scholarship--loomed large in Patroni's arguments.
Like Patroni before him, Macchioro recognised a continuous arc of stylistic development in the vases of Ruvo, and concluded that Ruvo had been the birthplace of Apulian red-figure.
Though less explicitly, Moon followed Tillyard's assumption that Apulian red-figure had been produced on an industrial scale, and that it was likely to have been transmitted from Athenians to a community of fellow Greeks capable of sustaining such a 'great industry'.
Furthermore, Moon settled on Taras as the most probable centre of production for both Lucanian and Apulian red-figure, adducing the city's 'importance and prosperity during the early part of the life of the industry' (Moon 1929: 48).
For Tillyard and Trendall, the relative Greekness of the potential destinations was a decisive factor in where Apulian red-figure workshops took root.
Metaponto is the only South Italian site for which Apulian red-figure production has been verified through the discovery of workshop contexts.
In sum, scholars have tended to favour the colonial-Greek candidates for hosting the first Apulian workshops, but these candidates receive only the slimmest support from the archaeological record.
Apulian red-figure vases could be used to illuminate Italic cultures that are not well understood.