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(ancient Iranian, Harahvati), an ancient region in the basin of the Arghandab, Arghastan, and Ghazni rivers, with its center in the area of present-day Kandahar, Afghanistan. It was first mentioned in the Behistun inscriptions. It was known in the Younger Avesta.

According to data of several ancient authors, Arachosia extended as far as the Indus. It was part of the kingdoms of the Achaemenids, Alexander of Macedonia, the Maurya dynasty, the Kushans, and others. Some Greek, Saka, and Parthian dynasties founded independent possessions in Arachosia and minted their own money, which was released in the major cities of Arachosia—Alexandria-Arachosia and Alexandropolis. Arachosia is mentioned as “Arohajj” by some early Arabic authors. Arachosia, or its parts, corresponds to the country of Camboge, which is known from ancient Indian sources (in southeastern Afghanistan).


Grantovskii, E. A. “Iz istorii vostochnoiranskikh piemen na grani-tsakh Indii.” In the collection Kratkie soobshcheniia in-ta naro-dov Azii, no. 61. Moscow, 1963. (Bibliography.)


References in classic literature ?
In mail their horses clad, yet fleet and strong, Prauncing their riders bore, the flower and choice Of many provinces from bound to bound-- From Arachosia, from Candaor east, And Margiana, to the Hyrcanian cliffs Of Caucasus, and dark Iberian dales; From Atropatia, and the neighbouring plains Of Adiabene, Media, and the south Of Susiana, to Balsara's haven.
The famous Behest Rock Inscription (520-518 by),engraved on a cliff 100 meters off the ground along the road between Hamadan in Iran and Baghdad in Iraq, contains Darius's political testament and autobiographical details; and among the twenty-three lands of the Persian Empire are mentioned Gandhara, Arachosia (southern Afghanistan)and Make (the Macron coast of Baluchistan).
After burning Persepolis (330 BC), Alexander marched through the heart of Iran towards the eastern Persian satrapies of Drangiana, Arachosia, Bactria and Sogdiana.
The effects were somewhat mitigated by the fact that Craterus and a substantial section of the Macedonian forces had been sent to Carmania by a less risky route via Arachosia and Drangiana.
It has been variously identified as Alexandria in Aria (Herat) and as Alexandria in Arachosia (Kandahar).
23 The historical questions addressed in Bernard 1985 (Questions d'histoire greco-bactrienne) are: Greek Arachosia and the Mauryas (a problem solved in the main since Foucher's times); the era of Eucratides; the Branchides in Central Asia; the causes of the revolt of the Greek mercenaries in 323; Bactria and Menander's Samian; Euthydemos I and Magnesia on the Meander.