Arachosia


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Arachosia

 

(ancient Iranian, Harahvati), an ancient region in the basin of the Arghandab, Arghastan, and Ghazni rivers, with its center in the area of present-day Kandahar, Afghanistan. It was first mentioned in the Behistun inscriptions. It was known in the Younger Avesta.

According to data of several ancient authors, Arachosia extended as far as the Indus. It was part of the kingdoms of the Achaemenids, Alexander of Macedonia, the Maurya dynasty, the Kushans, and others. Some Greek, Saka, and Parthian dynasties founded independent possessions in Arachosia and minted their own money, which was released in the major cities of Arachosia—Alexandria-Arachosia and Alexandropolis. Arachosia is mentioned as “Arohajj” by some early Arabic authors. Arachosia, or its parts, corresponds to the country of Camboge, which is known from ancient Indian sources (in southeastern Afghanistan).

REFERENCE

Grantovskii, E. A. “Iz istorii vostochnoiranskikh piemen na grani-tsakh Indii.” In the collection Kratkie soobshcheniia in-ta naro-dov Azii, no. 61. Moscow, 1963. (Bibliography.)

E. A. GRANTOVSKII

References in classic literature ?
In mail their horses clad, yet fleet and strong, Prauncing their riders bore, the flower and choice Of many provinces from bound to bound-- From Arachosia, from Candaor east, And Margiana, to the Hyrcanian cliffs Of Caucasus, and dark Iberian dales; From Atropatia, and the neighbouring plains Of Adiabene, Media, and the south Of Susiana, to Balsara's haven.
The famous Behest Rock Inscription (520-518 by),engraved on a cliff 100 meters off the ground along the road between Hamadan in Iran and Baghdad in Iraq, contains Darius's political testament and autobiographical details; and among the twenty-three lands of the Persian Empire are mentioned Gandhara, Arachosia (southern Afghanistan)and Make (the Macron coast of Baluchistan).
CUADRO 1 Especies y morfoespecies de aranas en cultivos de Citrus sinensis en Bella Vista, Corrientes, Argentina TABLE 1 Species and morphospecies of spiders in cultures of Citrus sinensis in Bella Vista, Corrientes, Argentina Familia Especies/Morfoespecies AM1 AM2 Amphinectidae Metaltella simoni Keyserling, 1878) 31 65 Anyphaenidae Arachosia praesignis (Keyserling, 6 8 1891) " Jessica erythrostoma (Mello-Leitao, 143 135 1939) " Jessica fidelis (Mello-Leitao, 1922) 19 20 " Aysha triunfo Brescovit, 1992 13 12 " Jesica sp.
They were Alexandria Arachosia (Kandahar), Alexandria Ariana (Heart), Alexandria in the Caucasus (Bagram), Alexandria on the Oxus (Ai-Khanoum), and Alexandria Prophthasia (Farah).
The effects were somewhat mitigated by the fact that Craterus and a substantial section of the Macedonian forces had been sent to Carmania by a less risky route via Arachosia and Drangiana.
It has been variously identified as Alexandria in Aria (Herat) and as Alexandria in Arachosia (Kandahar).
Now our dominions stretched from the Caspian Sea to the Persian Gulf but lay open to the east; I advanced with my Macedonians to the borders of Area and Drangiana, I laid waste Gedrosia, and gave Arachosia a thrashing, after which I occupied Bactria as a conqueror; and to safeguard these military victories by a lasting union, I took the Bactrian Princess Roxana to wife.
A first century AD Greek handbook, entitled The Parthian Stations, describes a route from Mesopotamia through Iran to Arachosia (modern Kandahar in Afghanistan).
Six, at any rate, is the number of cities listed as genuine foundations of Alexander's in the last sentence of the epilogue (201), though mysteriously excluded from that list is Alexandria in Arachosia, which, it had been said only two pages earlier, `Alexander undoubtedly founded' (199).
Preceded by mana, the genitive of the first personal pronoun, the Old Persian term ba[n]daka occurs nine times in the inscription,(25) as part of the formula by which Darius introduces, in his narrative, the nine men under whose leadership armies defeated some of his rebellious opponents in different parts of the empire: the Persian Hydarnes (Vidarna) in Media (DB 25); the Armenian Dadarshi in Armenia (DB 26-8); the Persian Omises (Vaumisa) in Armenia (DB 29-30); the Mede Takhmaspada in Sagartia (DB 33); the Persian Dadarshi in Margiana (DB 38), satrap in Baktria; the Persian Artavardiya in Persia (DB 41-2); the Persian Vivana in Arachosia (DB 45-7), satrap of the region; the Persian Intaphernes (Vi[n]dafarna) in Babylon (DB 50) and finally the Persian Gobryas (Gaubaruva) in Elam (DB 71).
Instead he was comprehensively beaten, and had to surrender a string of provinces -- Arachosia and the Paropamisadai in particular -- which provided Chandragupta with a defensive bastion against any other incursion from the west.
321); with the aid of Kautilya, an administrator and politician, he set himself up as king of Magadha; he went on to wipe out the Greek dominions in northern India while the Greeks were distracted by the Wars of the Diadochi, and went on to subjugate all of India north of the Narmada River; he repulsed an invasion led by Seleucus I Nicator (305), and by this victory gained much of Arachosia (southern Afghanistan) and Gedrosia (Baluchistan) in exchange for 500 war elephants; he gave up the throne and retired from public life (297), and died, traditionally by his own hand, in 286.