Arapaho

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Arapaho

(ərăp`əhō), Native North Americans of the Plains whose language belongs to the Algonquian branch of the Algonquian-Wakashan linguistic stock (see Native American languagesNative American languages,
languages of the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere and their descendants. A number of the Native American languages that were spoken at the time of the European arrival in the New World in the late 15th cent.
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). Their own name was Inuna-ina (our people), but they were referred to as "dog eaters" (for the obvious reason) by other Native Americans. Tradition places their early home in N Minnesota in the Red River valley, but nothing is known of the date or circumstances of their separation from other Algonquian peoples. They are thought to be most closely related to the Cheyenne and to the Blackfoot. However, it is known that the Arapaho divided into two groups after they migrated to the plains. One group, the Northern Arapaho, continued to live on the North Platte River in Wyoming, while the Southern Arapaho moved south to the Arkansas River in Colorado. Traditionally the Southern Arapaho were allied with the Cheyenne against the Pawnee.

The Arapaho placed some emphasis on age gradesage grade and age set,
differentiation of social role based on age, commonly found in small-scale societies of North America and East Africa.
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, mainly for ceremonial purposes. Their annual sun dance was a major tribal event, and later the Arapaho adopted the Ghost DanceGhost Dance,
central ritual of the messianic religion instituted in the late 19th cent. by a Paiute named Wovoka. The religion prophesied the peaceful end of the westward expansion of whites and a return of the land to the Native Americans.
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 religion. There are three major divisions—the Atsina or Gros VentreGros Ventre
[Fr.,=big belly], name used by the French for two quite distinct Native North American groups. One was the Atsina, a detached band of the Arapaho, whose language belongs to the Algonquian branch of the Algonquian-Wakashan linguistic stock (see Native American
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, who were allied with the Blackfoot and now live with the Assiniboin on the Fort Belknap Reservation in Montana; the Southern Arapaho, now living with the Cheyenne in Oklahoma; and the Northern Arapaho, who retain all of the sacred tribal stone articles and are considered by tribal members to represent the parent group. Since 1876 they have lived with their former enemies, the Shoshone, on the Wind River Reservation, occupying some 2 million acres in Wyoming, near Yellowstone National Park. The Arapaho depend on tourism for much of their income. There were close to 7,000 Arapaho in the United States in 1990.

Bibliography

See G. A. Dorsey and A. L. Kroeber, Traditions of the Arapaho (1903, repr. 1974); V. C. Trenholm, Arapahoes, Our People (1970).

Arapaho

 

an Indian tribe of the Algonquian group in North America. Originally the Arapahos were farmers and woodland hunters in the area of the Great Lakes plater they migrated to the plains; by the 18th and 19th centuries they were already well known as nomadic horse breeders and mounted buffalo hunters. During this period a military democratic structure with surviving elements of a matriarchal society took shape among the Arapahos. In religion they combined worship of the land with that of its harvest (the cult of the sun and the buffalo). Since the second half of the 19th century, the extermination of the buffalo and the seizure of Arapaho lands by colonizers put an end to their distinctive culture. Most of the Arapahos were herded into the Wind River Reservation (Wyoming, USA).

Arapaho

North American Plains Indians living along the Platte and Arkansas rivers. [Am. Hist.: EB, I: 477–478]