Arawakan Languages

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Arawakan Languages

 

one of the largest families of Indian languages, widespread in the northern part of South America (in the Orinoco, Rio Negro, and Amazon river basins), on the islands of the West Indies, and in southern Florida. There are up to 40 Arawakan languages forming either four or eight large subgroups depending on the system of classification. The most well-known languages are Lokono (Arawak proper), Guajiro, Island Carib, Maipuri, Achagua, Ipuriná, Taino, Piro, Mojo, Paressí. The phonological system of the Arawakan languages is of the so-called Atlantic type: although the vowel system is well-developed (six or seven phonemes), there are relatively few consonants (usually 12—14 phonemes). Their morphological structure is basically agglutinative with some tendencies toward polysynthesism. Suffixation is predominant, but prefixation (possessive prefixation in the noun, subject prefixation in the verb, preverbs, and so forth) also plays a large role. There are both prepositions and postpositions. The pronominal subject often follows the verb, and the demonstrative pronoun follows the word which is modified. There is considerable lexical divergence among the languages. The system of word formation is well developed.

REFERENCES

Alden Mason, J. “The Languages of South American Indians,” in Handbook of South American Indians, vol. 6. Washington, D. C, 1950.
Kingsley Noble, G. Proto-Arawakan and Its Descendants. The Hague, 1965.

G. A. KLIMOV

References in periodicals archive ?
Collectively, the volume aims to be inclusive in its coverage of key culture groups and includes papers discussing warfare and violence among the Maya, Aztecs, Zapotecs, Arawakan Taino, Moche, Cotacachi, Waorani, Tupinamba, and the hunter gatherers of the Gran Chaco.
Deliberate mistranslation of the word carib in Arawakan and Cariban languages into Caliban via the Spanish word Canibalis is cited as another instance of the failure as well as the violence of translation (41).
The ancestors also gave the Garifuna their characteristic music, which incorporates both African and Native American drum rhythms and song patterns, and an expressive language made up of Arawakan and Cariban (the original languages of the Caribs) and Yoruba, a West African language.
Index of languages Geographical Language Family area Source 'Ala'ala Austronesian Papua New Guinea Ross (2002a) (Oceanic) Albanian Indo-European Albania Buchholz and (Albanian) Fiedler (1987) Ambae Austronesian Vanuatu (Ambae Hyslop (2001) (Oceanic) islands) Apalai Carib Brazil (Paru Koehn and Koehn Leste River) (1986) Arosi Austronesian Solomon Islands Lynch and Horoi (Oceanic) (2002) Axininca Campa Arawakan Peru (Pachitea Spring (1992) River) Blackfoot Algic Canada (Alberta) Frantz (1991) (Plains) Chamorro Austronesian Guam Topping (1973) Cheyenne Algic USA (Montana) Davis (1962) (Plains) Danish Indo-European Denmark Basboll and (Germ.