Archaeological Excavations


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Wikipedia.

Archaeological Excavations

 

excavations carried out in the interests of historical studies of archaeological remains, primarily of ancient burials or settlements.

In the USSR, archaeological excavations are organized by special archaeological institutions, for example, by scientific research institutes, university archaeological subdepart-ments, museums, and other establishments. Archaeological excavations can only be conducted by archaeological specialists with a full authorization document (the so-called otkrytyi list) issued by the Academy of Sciences of the USSR and the academies of sciences of the Union republics giving the right to conduct excavations.

Archaeological science has developed a whole system of scientific methods of excavation. Excavations of settlements are conducted over rather large areas in order to accommodate the exposed structures; in strata (within the stratum, in layers of specified thickness); and in squares (for convenient fixation) down to the base of the cultural level. Clear documentation of excavations—written, graphic, and photographic—is obligatory. During excavations, cultural levels (and in burials—the mounds of barrows and the fillings of burial pits), structures, various finds, human and animal remains, plant remains, grains, and other objects are studied.

The study of earth stratification and mounds makes up archaeological stratigraphy. Stratigraphic observations make it possible to solve problems of the order and interrelations of strata and structures, of their relative dating, and of the time and scope of encountered rediggings or grave robberies. In the case of barrows, the mounds are excavated completely; where the burial has no mound, excavation frequently proceeds in areas, as in the excavation of settlements. During excavations, necessary measures are taken to preserve the excavated objects and the remaining uninvestigated structures. In many cases, samples are taken for paleobotanical, dendrochronological, radiocarbon, paleomagnetic, chemical, and other analyses. Archaeological expeditions often include soil scientists, geologists, zoologists, and physicists. Excavations are carried out with the aid of different instruments, among them shovels, picks, knives, lancets, and brushes. It is sometimes possible to excavate barrows with excavating machines. Carriers, hoists, and bulldozers are used to remove the earth that has been examined and separated from the finds. The complete uncovering of the settlement under investigation provides the material to reconstruct its past life, and the study of burials makes it possible to solve questions of anthropological makeup, ethnogenesis, economy, ideology, and social structure. The discoveries of archaeologists make it possible to reconstruct the historical picture of the lives of many peoples in the periods of primitive communal, slave-owning, and feudal societies.

REFERENCES

Avdusin, D. A. Arkheologicheskie razvedki i raskopki. Moscow, 1959. (Bibliography.)
Blavatskii, V. D. Antichnaia polevaia arkheologiia. Moscow, 1967. (Bibliography.)

D. A. AVDSIN

References in periodicals archive ?
The contract is for the execution of archaeological excavations at archaeological sites Ostroda XXV, Ostroda XVI, Ostroda XVII, Hill And, Hill V, Hill VI, Hill VII colliding with a planned construction of an expressway S7 episode Milomlyn Olsztynek, subsection node OstrEda North-node OstrEda south with the development of research results.
Archaeological excavations uncovered the remains of structures and hearths at the geoglyphs, suggesting that rituals took place there, said archaeologists Irina Shevnina and Andrew Logvin, of Kostanay University, in an email to Live Science.
The discovery and archaeological excavations of the temple sites in the south region of Damagou began in 2002 and most sites we excavated were established during the period from the sixth century to the eighth century," said Dr.
In a statement to the media, the Royal Embassy of Norway in Sofia explains that the project for the archaeological excavations on the St.
A large-scale archaeological excavation will be required after the demolition of buildings which would be carried out by Archaeological Services at Durham University.
Founded by Ptolemy Philadelphos II in the early third century BCE, the site was the subject of Hungarian archaeological excavations and studies between 1998 and 2004 under the leadership of respected archaeologist Gyozo Voros.
Archaeological excavations at a prison near Megiddo, Israel, have uncovered remains of what may have been one of the region's oldest Christian churches.
This work, which is being carried out by Weldon Construction, will allow archaeological excavations and service diversions to be completed before the main roadworks begin.
Stealing relics that date back 4,000 years to the civilizations of Babylon and Sumer, the thieves destroyed decades' worth of archaeological excavations.
Almost 35 years ago, archaeological excavations revealed the location of King Herod's palace fortress, from which he ruled for 40 years.
The other papers are: Mary Valante, `Dublin's economic relations with hinterland and periphery in the later Viking age'; Alan Hayden, `West Side story: archaeological excavations at Corn-market and Bridge Street Upper, Dublin -- a summary account'; Clare McCutcheon, `Medieval pottery in Dublin: new names and some dates'; D.
A proposed new visitor centre for the Roman site of Volubilis in Morocco will be a living museum for artefacts unearthed as archaeological excavations continue.

Full browser ?