Archaeological Culture


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Archaeological Culture

 

a term used to designate an assemblage of archaeological remains, dating from one period in time, which are distinguished by local peculiarities and are concentrated within a certain territory. An archaeological culture is generally named after some distinguishing feature—the shape of or designs on ceramics and ornaments (for example, the Funnel-beaker culture), burial rites (for example, the Catacomb culture), or after the locality where the most typical remains of a given culture were first discovered (for example, the Dneprodonets culture). Archaeological cultures often correspond to specific groups of an ancient people, including ethnic groups. It is sometimes possible to associate specific archaeological cultures with tribes known from written sources. However, the similarity among elements of a material culture does not always reflect an ethnic community or the community of origin. Similarities in the way of life and the material culture of different tribes may arise independently under similar social and geographical conditions. Individual cultural elements may also be borrowed as a result of the diffusion of ideas or the migration of people bearing this culture. The study of the origin, diffusion, and disappearance of archaeological cultures makes it possible to reconstruct the prehistory of tribes and peoples.

REFERENCES

Levin, M. G., and N.N. Cheboksarov. “Khoziaistvenno-kul’turnye tipy i istoriko-etnograficheskie oblasti.” Sovetskaia etnografiia, 1955, no. 4.
Mongait, A. L. “Arkheologicheskie kul’tury i etnicheskie obshchnosti.” Narody Azii i’ Afriki, 1967, no. 1.
Formozov, A. A. Etnokul’turnye oblasti na territorii Evropeiskoi chasti SSSR ν kamennom veke. Moscow, 1959.
Eggers, H. J. Einführung in die Vorgeschichte. Munich, 1959.
De Laet, S. L’archéologie et ses problèmes. Berchem-Brussels, 1954.

A. L. MONGAIT

References in periodicals archive ?
Speaking about the Khojaly-Gadabay, he noted that generally, an archaeological culture is named after definite distinguishing features, the most common of which is the locality where the most typical remains of a given culture were first discovered.
Different sites of an archaeological culture can show different degrees of the use of celestial symbols,
Recent research on Baden culture has seldom questioned whether the archaeological phenomenon is to be classified as an archaeological culture.
These sites differed in archaeological culture and in the type of settlement they represented.
An archaeological culture can be defined as a constantly recurring assemblage of artifacts assumed to be representative of a particular set of behavioral activities carried out at a particular place and time.
Archaeological culture Source Denbigh 1 Independence I 2, 3 Predorset 2-4 Saqqaq 5-7 Old Whaling 8 Choris 8 Dorset 3, 9, 10 Norton-Near Ipiutak 8, 11 Ipiutak 8, 11 Okvik-Old Bering Sea 12-17 Birnirk 14, 18-22 Eady/Pioneering Thule 8, 18, 20, 22, 23 Punuk 12, 14, 21 Late/Classic Thule 8, 10, 18, 20, 24, 25 Late Prehistoric 8, 11, 18, 22 Modified Thule 10, 24 - absent + present ++ relatively common ?
In particular, excavations in 2004/5 have revealed circular sherd settings and horizontal band handles of kangs typical of Bohai archaeological culture.
While materials from some 1002 sites are considered, very important to Gordon's analysis is the ability to identify the archaeological culture of tools such as endscrapers, knives, chithos, and adze blades, when found in unstratified contexts or on the surface.
A crucial element of the latter is the interpretation of the Andronovo archaeological culture (family of cultures, or cultural intercommunity), whose sites lie within a huge territory behind the Urals.
The book includes a history of research and what is known about the archaeological cultures of the region.
For this purpose, we will use advanced techniques recently introduced to the individual disciplines, such as the application of phylogenetic methods to linguistic classification, a focus on derivational morphology in the reconstruction of subsistence-related language, a matrix-based comparison of archaeological cultures and a model-based approach applied to genome-wide autosomal data.
However, the naming of past cultures also has implications for how the public, and in particular the descendants of the archaeological cultures we study, understand the past, each other, and us.

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