Santo Domingo

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Santo Domingo

(sän`tō dōmēng`gō), city (1993 pop. 1,609,966), S Dominican Republic, on the Caribbean Sea, at the mouth of the Ozama River. It is the country's capital, largest city, leading port, and primary commercial center. Founded Aug. 4, 1496, by Bartholomew Columbus, brother of Christopher Columbus, it may be the oldest continuously inhabited European settlement in the Western Hemisphere. Shortly after its founding it became the base from which Diego de Velázquez set out to conquer Cuba. It was the first seat of Spanish colonial administration in the New World. The city was sacked by Sir Francis Drake in 1586. Santo Domingo was almost totally destroyed by a hurricane in 1930 but was rebuilt and renamed Ciudad Trujillo, after dictator Rafael Leonidas TrujilloTrujillo Molina, Rafael Leonidas
, 1891–1961, president of the Dominican Republic (1930–38, 1942–52). Trained by U.S. marines during U.S. occupation of the country, he was army chief in the presidency of Horacio Vásquez, whom he ousted in 1930.
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; the original name was restored in 1961 after his death.

Although replete with historic sites, Santo Domingo today is a city of broad avenues and modern buildings. The cathedral, begun in 1514, is the oldest in the Western Hemisphere; until 1990 it contained the reputed tomb of Christopher Columbus, which was moved to the Columbus Memorial Lighthouse in 1992. Construction of the expensive lighthouse, the world's largest, met with controversy in the poor country, whose native population was largely exterminated after the arrival of Columbus and whose current population is largely of African, not Spanish, descent.


Santo Domingo

(sän'tə dəmĭng`gō), pueblo (1990 pop. 2,866), Sandoval co., N central N.Mex., on the Rio Grande; founded c.1700 after earlier pueblos were destroyed by floods. Its inhabitants are PuebloPueblo,
name given by the Spanish to the sedentary Native Americans who lived in stone or adobe communal houses in what is now the SW United States. The term pueblo is also used for the villages occupied by the Pueblo.
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 of the Eastern Keresan linguistic family. Its principal ceremony, a magnificent Green Corn (or Busk) dance, is held in August.

Santo Domingo

(sän`tō dōmēng`gō), former Spanish colony on the island of HispaniolaHispaniola
, Span. Española , second largest island of the West Indies, 29,530 sq mi (76,483 sq km), between Cuba and Puerto Rico. Haiti occupies the western third of the island and the Dominican Republic the remainder.
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. The name has also been used for the Dominican RepublicDominican Republic
, republic (2005 est. pop. 8,950,000), 18,700 sq mi (48,442 sq km), West Indies, on the eastern two thirds of the island of Hispaniola. The capital and largest city is Santo Domingo.
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, and in early days it applied to HaitiHaiti
, Fr. Haïti , officially Republic of Haiti, republic (2005 est. pop. 8,122,000), 10,700 sq mi (27,713 sq km), West Indies, on the western third of the island of Hispaniola.
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. Columbus visited the island in 1492 and established a settlement on the northern coast, but when he returned in 1493, the settlers had vanished. He administered a new colony there until complaints against his rule caused him to be replaced (1500) by Francisco de Bobadilla. In 1509, Columbus's son Diego became governor. Failing to find mineral wealth in quantity, the colonists became farmers; the work was done for them under the encomiendaencomienda
[Span. encomendar=to entrust], system of tributory labor established in Spanish America. Developed as a means of securing an adequate and cheap labor supply, the encomienda was first used over the conquered Moors of Spain.
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 system by the native Caribs. Before the adoption (1542) of the New Laws urged by Bartolomé de las Casas for protection of the Caribs, most of them had perished and the importation of black African slaves had been sanctioned. Santo Domingo was subject to frequent raids by English and French buccaneers. Although Spain nominally owned the whole island, European colonization had not been undertaken in the west; French buccaneers used the ports there (in present Haiti) as a rendezvous, and later French planters were able to establish settlements. In the latter half of the 18th cent. sugarcane was introduced, and sugar plantations became dominant. Unable to enforce its claims to the whole island, Spain ceded (1697) the western part (then called Saint-Domingue) to France and in 1795 gave up the whole island. Spanish rule was restored in the east when the inhabitants, aided by the British, rebelled against the French in 1808–9. The Spanish themselves were ousted in 1821; in 1822 the Haitians extended their rule over the entire island. The Haitians were driven out in 1844 and the Dominican Republic was proclaimed.

Santo Domingo

 

the capital of the Dominican Republic and the country’s most important economic and cultural center. Population, including suburbs, approximately 900,000 (1973). Santo Domingo is located in the southeastern part of Hispaniola, on a low-lying shore of the Caribbean Sea. The climate is tropical, with an average January temperature of 24.1°C and an average July temperature of 27°C. The annual precipitation is 1,459 mm. Santo Domingo is a highway junction and the principal port of the Dominican Republic. The city has food- and condiment-industry enterprises that produce sugar, rum, vegetable oil, soap, and tobacco, as well as enterprises of the textile, garment, leather-footwear, cement, lumber, and furniture industries. It is a tourist center.

Santo Domingo was founded on the east bank of the Ozama River in 1496 by Bartholomew Columbus, brother of Christopher Columbus, and was given the name Nueva Isabela. In 1844 the city became the capital of the Dominican Republic. From 1916 to 1924 it was occupied by US marines. Between 1931 and 1961 it was called Ciudad Trujillo, after the dictator R. L. Trujillo Molina. In the late 1950’s armed protests against Trujillo took place in Santo Domingo; they were especially intense in 1956, 1959, and 1960. In May 1965 the city was held by revolutionary supporters of the constitutional regime, who opposed the reactionary junta triumvirate. The triumvirate was assisted by US armed forces, who had landed in Santo Domingo-

In the first half of the 16th century, Santo Domingo acquired a regular street plan, and massive stone buildings in a transitional style between Gothic and Renaissance were erected. Noteworthy are the Tower of Homage (1503–07), the Viceregal Palace (1510–14), the cathedral with the tomb of Christopher Columbus (first half of the 16th century), and the Palacete de Engombe (1535). Also notable are many of the city’s hospitals, monasteries, and two-story residences with inner courtyards. The city walls were built between 1543 and 1702. Buildings of reinforced concrete were erected after a hurricane destroyed nearly the entire city in 1930. Twentieth-century structures include a theater (1913) and the Jaragua Hotel (1943). The city’s important institutions include the University of Santo Domingo, the Pedro Henríquez Ureña Natioual University, the Academy of History, the Museum of Dominican Man, and the National Fine Arts Gallery.

REFERENCE

Alemar, L. E. Santo Domingo, Ciudad Trujillo. Santiago, Dominican Republic, 1943.

Santo Domingo

 

one of the names given by the Spanish in the early 16th century to the island of Hispaniola. From 1697 to 1844 the name “Santo Domingo” applied only to the eastern section of the island.

Santo Domingo

1. the capital and chief port of the Dominican Republic, on the S coast: the oldest continuous European settlement in the Americas, founded in 1496; university (1538). Pop.: 1 920 000 (2005 est.)
2. the former name (until 1844) of the Dominican Republic
3. another name (esp in colonial times) for Hispaniola