Argyll, Archibald Campbell, 9th earl of

Argyll, Archibald Campbell, 9th earl of,

1629?–1685, Scottish nobleman; son of the 8th earl. An ardent and active royalist and a Protestant, he opposed extreme measures against the CovenantersCovenanters
, in Scottish history, groups of Presbyterians bound by oath to sustain each other in the defense of their religion. The first formal Covenant was signed in 1557, signaling the beginning of the Protestant effort to seize power in Scotland.
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, thereby incurring the enmity of the duke of York (later James II), who in 1680 was high commissioner of Scotland. Argyll was accused of treason and sentenced to death in 1681. He escaped to Holland, was a leader of the rebellion in favor of the duke of MonmouthMonmouth, James Scott, duke of
, 1649–85, pretender to the English throne; illegitimate son of Charles II of England by Lucy Walter. After his mother's death, he was cared for by Lord Crofts, by whose name the boy was known. In 1662, James went to live at Charles's court.
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, and was captured and beheaded.