92) Recall that titanic-FW is the sort possessed by almost mythically supernatural-powers-possessing aryas and Arhats
, illustrated by divine pride's trans-temporal causation.
27) Psychologically too, the arhat
is the Theravadin exemplar who has realized anatta and is thus freed of the self-construction true of the unrealized layperson, (28) but also the monk-in-training, both bound to the karmic causality of the illusory self.
Soreyya takes his advice, and when she explains to the arhat
what happened and requests absolution, Mahakatyayana says, "I forgive you.
Subhuti then agrees that if one were to present such a gift to the Tathagatas (the "thus come ones," the ones who have recovered their original emptiness), the arhats
(those free from samsara or the peregrinations of the cycle of rebirth), and the fully enlightened ones, it would produce immeasurable merit.
As for stanza 2, it is best interpreted as a description of the liberated state reached by the arhat
: having rid himself of craving, the cause of suffering, and being fully acquainted with the residual substrate of his continued existence (especially the five constituents as no longer subject to clinging), the arhat
has reached his last existence and will never be (re)born again.
For example, the great Sungdynasty literatus, Su Shih [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (or Tung-p'o [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]) (1037-1101) wrote a series of isan to accompany eighteen paintings of Buddhist arhats
(perfected monks) by the monk-painter Ch'an-ytieh [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII].
Reginald Ray's chapter on Nagarjuna's longevity is a product of his deep and abiding interest in Buddhist hagiography, and suggests that the notion of "longevity is often ascribed to Buddhist saints as such, whether buddhas, arhats
, bodhisattvas, or siddhas" (p.
This tells us that Huska, Juska and Kaniska were three rulers over the three cities that bore their names; the pure-souled Juska founded a vihara as well as Juskapura and Jayasvamipura; these kings, although of Turkish descent, gave themselves to pious deeds, building in Suskaletra and other places foundations such as monasteries and shrines; during their glorious reign Kashmir was mostly dedicated to the Buddhists, whose mendicant lifestyle enhanced their fame; at this period one hundred fifty years had passed since the Parinirvana of the Buddha; and in this country a bodhisattva, Nagarjuna, was the sole sovereign of the earth (eko bhumisvaro), dwelling in the Grove of the Six Arhats
The council of five hundred arhats
that was held after the historical Buddha passed away did not document attendance by any women.
Before this, a 16th century Ming dynasty painting Eighteen Arhats
by Wu Bin, which fetched 169 million yuan, was the highest amount a Chinese work of art had fetched.
The Contemporary Chinese Art sale is estimated to bring $32 million and is highlighted by Liu Xiaodong's Battlefield Realism: The Eighteen Arhats
(estimate of $5.
Geshe Damdul Namgyal, "Buddhas, Bodhisattvas, Arhats
, and Lamas in Buddhism," pp.