Arikara


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Arikara

(ərĭk`ərə), Native North Americans whose language belongs to the Caddoan branch of the Hokan-Siouan linguistic stock (see Native American languagesNative American languages,
languages of the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere and their descendants. A number of the Native American languages that were spoken at the time of the European arrival in the New World in the late 15th cent.
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). Archaeological evidence shows that they occupied the banks of the upper Missouri River since at least the 14th cent. A semisedentary group, they lived in earth-covered lodges. In winter they hunted buffalo, returning to their villages for spring planting; the Arikara were influential in bringing agricultural knowledge from the Southwest to the prehistoric peoples of the upper Missouri River. They traded corn with hunting tribes in return for buffalo hides and meat, and they were active in bartering with early white traders, who frequently called them the Rees. They were closely associated with the MandanMandan
, indigenous people of North America whose language belongs to the Siouan branch of the Hokan-Siouan linguistic stock (see Native American languages). The Mandan were a sedentary tribe of the Plains area and were culturally connected with their neighbors on the Missouri
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 and the HidatsaHidatsa
, Native North Americans, also known as the Minitari and the Gros Ventre. Their language belongs to the Siouan branch of the Hokan-Siouan linguistic stock (see Native American languages).
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; these three tribes now share the Fort Berthold Reservation in North Dakota. There were some 1,600 Arikara in the United States in 1990.

Bibliography

See D. J. Lehmer, Arikara Archaeology (1968); E. T. Denig, Five Indian Tribes of the Upper Missouri (1975).

References in periodicals archive ?
The 1837-38 smallpox epidemic, for instance, left little more than one hundred Mandans alive, while it further reduced what remained of the Hidatsa and Arikara populations.
The company's early success earned Bawden and Arikara the 2006 Ernst & Young Entrepreneur of the Year Award for emerging markets in Northern California.
By the fall of 1823, the hostile Arikaras had been driven from their villages on the Missouri, making passage north possible again.
Arikara were selected by an independent panel of judges and the award was presented at the 20th Anniversary Gala event at the Fairmont Hotel in San Francisco, California.
Will, great-grandfather of GRIT'S editor in chief, mentions that the Native American Arikara people grew a similar squash that wasn't quite equal in quality.
For example, contemporary Mandan, Hidatsa, and Arikara women in the Upper Missouri River creatively combine "various sources of subsistence--including commodity food and other welfare programs--to craft an informal network through which they redistribute resources and ensure community cohesion.
In sixteen chronologically arranged chapters, Morris treats events such as Nathaniel Pryor's defeat at the hands of the Arikara in his attempt to return the Mandan Chief Sheheke to his people in 1807; the New Madrid earthquakes of 1811-1812, witnessed by William Bratton and John Ordway; and Sacagawea's death in 1812.
Contact: Lee Arikara, Jadoo Power, phone 916-608-9044, e-mail info@jadoopower.
Nasdaq: NXXI) and the Mandan, Hidatsa and Arikara (MHA) Nation today announced the initiation of their collaboration to conduct the first Diachrome(R) Physician Supervised Health Outcomes Initiative among Native Americans living with type 2 diabetes.
Senator John Hoeven, chairman of the Senate Committee on Indian Affairs, today announced that the Mandan, Hidatsa and Arikara Nation, Standing Rock and Spirit Lake tribes are eligible for the Cobell Land Buy-Back Program following the Department of the Interiors competitive review of the program.
When I wrote the article on Arikara Flag Songs (Vol.