Arizona

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Arizona

(âr'əzō`nə), state in the SW United States. It is bordered by Utah (N), New Mexico (E), Mexico (S), and, largely across the Colorado River, Nevada and California (W); it touches Colorado (NE) in the Four Corners region.

Facts and Figures

Area, 113,909 sq mi (295,024 sq km). Pop. (2010) 6,392,017, a 24.6% increase since the 2000 census. Capital and largest city, Phoenix. Statehood, Feb. 14, 1912 (48th state). Highest pt., Humphreys Peak, 12,633 ft (3,853 m); lowest pt., Colorado River, 70 ft (21 m). Nickname, Grand Canyon State, Copper State. Motto, Ditat Deus [God Enriches]. State bird, cactus wren. State flower, blossom of the saguaro cactus. State tree, paloverde. Abbr., Ariz.; AZ

Geography

Northern Arizona lies on the Colorado PlateauColorado Plateau,
physiographic region of SW North America, c.150,000 sq mi (388,500 sq km), in Arizona, Utah, Colorado, and New Mexico, including the "Four Corners" area. It is characterized by broad plateaus, ancient volcanic mountains at elevations of c.
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, an area of dry plains more than 4,000 ft (1,220 m) high, with deep canyons, including the famous Grand CanyonGrand Canyon,
great gorge of the Colorado River, one of the natural wonders of the world; c.1 mi (1.6 km) deep, from 4 to 18 mi (6.4–29 km) wide, and 217 mi (349 km) long, NW Ariz.
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 carved by the ColoradoColorado
. 1 Great river of the SW United States, 1,450 mi (2,334 km) long, rising in the Rocky Mts. of N Colo., and flowing generally SW through Colo., Utah, Ariz., between Nev. and Ariz., and Ariz. and Calif.
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 River. Along the Little Colorado River, which runs northwest through the plateau to join the Colorado, are the Painted DesertPainted Desert,
badlands on the northeastern bank of the Little Colorado River, NE Ariz., stretching c.200 mi (320 km) SE from the Grand Canyon; includes Petrified Forest National Park.
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, where erosion has left colorful layers of sediment exposed, and the Petrified Forest National ParkPetrified Forest National Park,
93,533 acres (37,881 hectares), E Ariz.; est. as a national monument 1906, designated a national park 1962. A part of the Painted Desert, it contains the largest known display of petrified wood in the world.
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, one of the world's most extensive areas of petrified wood. South of the Grand Canyon are the San Francisco PeaksSan Francisco Peaks,
N Ariz., N of Flagstaff, consisting of Mt. Humphreys, 12,670 ft (3,862 m); Mt. Agassiz, 12,340 ft (3,761 m); and Mt. Fremont, 11,940 ft (3,639 m).
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, including Humphreys Peak, the highest point (12,655 ft/3,857 m) in the state. The southern edge of the Colorado Plateau is marked by an escarpment called Mogollon Rim.

The southern half of the state has desert basins broken up by mountains with rocky peaks and extending NW to SE across central Arizona. To the south, the GilaGila
, river, 630 mi (1,014 km) long, rising in the mountains of W N.Mex. and flowing W across Ariz. to the Colorado River at Yuma, Ariz.; the San Francisco River is its main tributary.
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 River, a major tributary of the Colorado, flows west across the entire state. This area has desert plains separated by mountain chains running north and south; in the west the plains fall to the relatively low altitude of c.140 ft (43 m) in the region around YumaYuma
, city (1990 pop. 54,923), seat of Yuma co., extreme SW Ariz., on the eastern bank of the Colorado River near the confluence of the Gila River; founded 1854, inc. as a city 1914. It is a major trade center of an extensive farm area irrigated by the Yuma project.
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.

Although some mountain peaks receive an annual rainfall of more than 30 in. (76 cm), precipitation in most of the state is low, and much of Arizona's history has been shaped by the inadequate water supply. Since the early 20th cent., massive irrigation projects have been built in Arizona's valleys. Roosevelt, Horse Mesa, Mormon Flat, and Stewart Mountain dams, with reservoirs and storage lakes, irrigate the Salt River valleySalt River valley,
irrigated region around the lower course of the Salt River, which rises in mountain streams near the Mogollon Rim of the Mogollon Plateau and flows southwest to join the Gila River in S central Arizona. Phoenix is the main city of the latter Ariz. region.
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. The Gillespie Dam on the Gila River helps irrigate the Yuma vicinity. The Coolidge Dam, with its San Carlos reservoir, serves the area near Casa GrandeCasa Grande
, city (1990 pop. 19,082), Pinal co., S Ariz.; inc. 1915. It lies in an irrigated farm area near the Casa Grande Mts. The city was named after an excavated pueblo that is included in the nearby Casa Grande National Monument (see National Parks and Monuments, table).
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 in the southeast. W Arizona is irrigated by Colorado River dams, which also serve California. These include Hoover, Glen Canyon, Davis, Parker, Imperial, and Laguna dams. At the Parker dam, the Central Arizona Project diverts water via canal to PhoenixPhoenix,
city (1990 pop. 983,403), state capital and seat of Maricopa co., S Ariz., on the Salt River; inc. 1881. It is the largest city in Arizona, the hub of the rich agricultural region of the Salt River valley, and an important center for research and development,
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, the state's capital and largest city, and TucsonTucson
, city (1990 pop. 405,390), seat of Pima co., SE Ariz.; inc. 1877. Situated in a desert plain surrounded by mountains, Tucson is an important and growing transportation and tourist center; its dry, sunny, and hot climate attracts vacationers and health seekers.
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, the second largest city. Arizona also obtains water from groundwater pumping stations.

Economy

The state's principal crops are cotton, lettuce, cauliflowers, broccoli, and sorghum. Cattle, calves, and dairy goods are, however, the most valuable Arizona farm products. Manufacturing is the leading economic activity, with electronics, printing and publishing, processed foods, and aerospace and transportation leading sectors. High-technology research and development, communications, and service industries are also important, as are construction (the state is rapidly growing) and tourism. Military facilities contributing to Arizona's economy include Fort Huachuca, Luke and Davis-Monthan air force bases, and the Yuma Proving Grounds. Testing and training with military aircraft and desert storage of commercial and military planes are both major undertakings.

Arizona abounds in minerals. Copper is the state's most valuable mineral; Arizona leads the nation in production. Other leading resources are molybdenum, sand, gravel, and cement.

The mountains in the north and central regions have 3,180,000 acres (1,286,900 hectares) of commercial forests, chiefly ponderosa pines and other firs, which support lumber and building-materials industries. The U.S. government owns about 95% of the commercial forests in the state. National and state forests attract millions of tourists yearly. Tourism centers in the N on the Grand Canyon, the Painted Desert, the Petrified Forest, meteor craters, ancient Native American ruins, and the Navajo and Hopi reservations that cover nearly all of the state's northeast quadrant. SE Arizona's warm, dry climate and Spanish colonial ruins also attract a large tourist trade, as do golf courses and other leisure facilities.

People

Between 1940 and 1960, Arizona's population increased more than 100%, and since then growth has continued. By the 2000 census the cumulative increase since 1940 amounted to more than 1000%, and Arizona was ranked among the fastest growing states in the nation. The mountainous north, however, has not shared the population growth of the southern sections of the state. Over 80% of the people are Caucasian and nearly 20% are Hispanic.

There were 203,527 Native Americans in Arizona in 1990 (or almost 6% of the people), the third highest such population in the United States. In addition to the NavajoNavajo
or Navaho
, Native North Americans whose language belongs to the Athabascan branch of the Nadene linguistic stock (see Native American languages). A migration from the North to the Southwest area is thought to have occurred in the past because of an affiliation
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, they include MohaveMohave
, indigenous people of North America whose language belongs to the Yuman branch of the Hokan-Siouan linguistic stock (see Native American languages). In the mid-18th cent. they lived on both banks of the Colorado River, in Arizona and California.
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, ApacheApache
, Native North Americans of the Southwest composed of six culturally related groups. They speak a language that has various dialects and belongs to the Athabascan branch of the Nadene linguistic stock (see Native American languages), and their ancestors entered the area
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, HopiHopi
, group of the Pueblo, formerly called Moki, or Moqui. They speak the Hopi language, which belongs to the Uto-Aztecan branch of the Aztec-Tanoan linguistic stock, at all their pueblos except Hano, where the language belongs to the Tanoan branch of the Aztec-Tanoan
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, PaiutePaiute
, two distinct groups of Native North Americans speaking languages belonging to the Shoshonean group of the Uto-Aztecan branch of the Aztec-Tanoan linguistic stock (see Native American languages).
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, Tohono O'OdhamTohono O'Odham
or Papago
, Native North Americans speaking a language that belongs to the Uto-Aztecan branch of the Aztec-Tanoan linguistic stock (see Native American languages) and that is closely related to that of their neighbors, the Pima.
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, PimaPima
, Native North American tribe of S Arizona. They speak the Pima language of the Uto-Aztecan branch of the Aztec-Tanoan linguistic family (see Native American languages). There are two divisions, the Lower Pima and the Upper Pima.
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, MaricopaMaricopa
, Native North Americans whose language belongs to the Yuman branch of the Hokan-Siouan linguistic stock (see Native American languages). At some time in the past the Maricopa, under pressure from the Yuma, moved up the Gila River in Arizona from the Colorado River.
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, Yavapaí, Hualapai, and Havasupai. Agriculture is the basis of their economy, but lack of water makes farming difficult; there is much poverty. The production of handicrafts, including leather goods, woven items, pottery, and the famous silver and turquoise jewelry of the Navajo; tourism; and mineral leases have also brought income to the tribes.

Government, Politics, and Education

The state's constitution provides for an elected governor and bicameral legislature, with a 30-member senate and a 60-member house of representatives. The governor and members of the legislature serve two-year terms. The state elects two senators and nine representatives to the U.S. Congress and has 11 electoral votes.

Republicans have dominated the politics of Arizona since the 1960s. In the late 1980s and 90s, political scandals tainted Arizona's governors. In 1988, Governor Evan Mecham, charged with obstructing justice and financial improprieties, was impeached and removed from office. J. Fife Symington 3d, another Republican, won election in 1991 and was reelected in 1994; in 1997, convicted on fraud charges, he too resigned. Republican secretary of state Jane Dee Hull succeeded Symington and won election on her own in 1998. In 2002, Democrat Janet Napolitano was elected to succeed Hull. She was reelected in 2006, but resigned in 2009 to become Homeland Security secretary. Arizona's secretary of state, Jan Brewer, a Republican, succeeded her, and was elected to the office in 2010; Doug Ducey, also a Republican, was elected in 2014.

Arizona's educational institutions include the Univ. of Arizona, at Tucson; Arizona State Univ., at TempeTempe
, city (1990 pop. 141,865), Maricopa co., S Ariz., in the Salt River valley, a suburb of Phoenix; inc. 1894. Its population has grown markedly since the 1970s with the expansion of the greater Phoenix area.
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; Northern Arizona Univ., at FlagstaffFlagstaff,
city (1990 pop. 45,857), seat of Coconino co., N Ariz., near the San Francisco Peaks; inc. 1894. Lumbering, ranching, and a lively tourist trade thrive in the region, where many ruined pueblos, numerous state parks, several lakes, and large pine forests are found.
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; and several private institutions.

History

Early History

Little is known of the earliest indigenous cultures in Arizona, but they probably lived in the region as early as 25,000 B.C. A later culture, the HohokamHohokam
, term denoting the culture of the ancient agricultural populations inhabiting the Salt and Gila river valleys of S Arizona (A.D. 300–1200). They are noted for their extensive irrigation systems, with canals over 10 mi (16 km) long that channeled water to
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 (A.D. 500–1450), were pit dwellers who constructed extensive irrigation systems. The PuebloPueblo,
name given by the Spanish to the sedentary Native Americans who lived in stone or adobe communal houses in what is now the SW United States. The term pueblo is also used for the villages occupied by the Pueblo.
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 flourished in Arizona between the 11th and 14th cent. and built many of the elaborate cliff dwellings that still stand. The Apache and Navajo came to the area in c.1300 from Canada.

Spanish Exploration and Mexican Control

Probably the first Spanish explorer to enter Arizona (c.1536) was Cabeza de VacaCabeza de Vaca, Álvar Núñez
, c.1490–c.1557, Spanish explorer. Cabeza de Vaca [cow's head] was not actually a surname but a hereditary title in his mother's family; he is frequently called simply Álvar Núñez.
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. Franciscan friar Marcos de NizaMarcos de Niza
, c.1495–1558, missionary explorer in Spanish North America. A Franciscan friar, he served in Peru and Guatemala before going to Mexico. There he headed an expedition (1539) planned by Antonio de Mendoza, who had been excited by Cabeza de Vaca's stories of
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 reached the state in 1539; he was followed by Francisco Vásquez de CoronadoCoronado, Francisco Vásquez de
, c.1510–1554, Spanish explorer. He went to Mexico with Viceroy Antonio de Mendoza and in 1538 was made governor of Nueva Galicia.
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, who led an expedition from Mexico in 1540 in search of the seven legendary cities of gold, reaching as far as the Grand Canyon. Despite extensive exploration, the region was neglected by the Spanish in favor of the more fruitful area of New Mexico. Father Eusebio KinoKino, Eusebio Francisco
, c.1644–1711, missionary explorer in the American Southwest, b. Segno, in the Tyrol. He was in 1669 admitted to the Jesuit order. A distinguished mathematician, he observed the comet of 1680–81 at Cádiz, publishing his results in his
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, a Jesuit, founded the missions of Guevavi (1692) and Tumacacori (1696), near NogalesNogales
, city (1990 pop. 19,489), Santa Cruz co., S Ariz. on the Mexican border with its adjacent city, Nogales (1990 pop. 105,873), Sonora, NW Mexico. There are copper, silver, and lead mines. Skirmishes occurred in Nogales against Pancho Villa in 1916.
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, and San Xavier del Bac (1700), near Tucson. The Spanish Empire, however, expelled the Jesuits in 1767, and those in Arizona subsequently lost their control over the indigenous people.

The Arizona region came under Mexican control following the Mexican war of independence from Spain (1810–21). In the early 1800s, U.S. mountain menmountain men,
fur trappers and traders in the Rocky Mts. during the 1820s and 30s. Their activities opened that region of the United States to general knowledge. Since the days of French domination there had been expeditions to the upper Missouri River, and in the early 19th
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, trappers and traders such as Kit CarsonCarson, Kit
(Christopher Houston Carson), 1809–68, American frontiersman and guide, b. Madison co., Ky. In 1811 he moved with his family to the Missouri frontier. After his father's death, he was apprenticed to a saddler in Old Franklin, an outfitting point on the Santa Fe
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, trapped beaver in the area, but otherwise there were few settlers.

U.S. Acquisition and the Discovery of Minerals

In the Treaty of Guadalupe HidalgoGuadalupe Hidalgo, Treaty of,
1848, peace treaty between the United States and Mexico that ended the Mexican War. Negotiations were carried on for the United States by Nicholas P. Trist. The treaty was signed on Feb.
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 (1848), ending the Mexican WarMexican War,
1846–48, armed conflict between the United States and Mexico. Causes

While the immediate cause of the war was the U.S. annexation of Texas (Dec., 1845), other factors had disturbed peaceful relations between the two republics.
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 (1846–48), Mexico relinquished control of the area N of the Gila River to the United States. This area became part of the U.S. Territory of New Mexico in 1850. The United States, wishing to build a railroad through the area S of the Gila River, bought the area between the river and the S boundary of Arizona from Mexico in the Gadsden PurchaseGadsden Purchase
, strip of land purchased (1853) by the United States from Mexico. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848) had described the U.S.-Mexico boundary vaguely, and President Pierce wanted to insure U.S.
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 (1853).

Arizona's minerals, valued even by prehistoric miners, attracted most of the early explorers, and although the area remained a relatively obscure section of the Territory of New Mexico, mining continued sporadically. Small numbers of prospectors, crossing Arizona to join the California gold rush (1849), found gold, silver, and a neglected metal—copper.

In 1861, at the outbreak of the Civil War, conventions held at Tucson and MesillaMesilla
, town (1990 pop. 1,975), SW N.Mex., on the Rio Grande and near Las Cruces; settled c.1850. The whole Mesilla Valley became part of the United States under the Gadsden Purchase (1853). Mesilla was a central station on the overland mail route. From July, 1861, to Aug.
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 declared the area part of the Confederacy. In the only engagement fought in the Arizona area, a small group of Confederate pickets held off Union cavalry NW of Tucson in the skirmish known as the battle of Picacho Pass.

Territorial Status and Statehood

In 1863, Arizona was organized as a separate territory, with its first, temporary capital at Fort Whipple. PrescottPrescott,
city (1990 pop. 26,455), alt. 5,389 ft (1,643 m), seat of Yavapai co., central Ariz. in a mineral-rich area; inc. 1883. It is a mining and ranching center, a summer resort, and the headquarters of Prescott National Forest.
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 became the capital in 1865. Charles D. Poston, who had worked to achieve Arizona's new status, was elected as the territory's first delegate to the U.S. Congress. The capital was moved to Tucson in 1867, back to Prescott in 1877, and finally to Phoenix in 1889.

The region had been held precariously by U.S. soldiers during the intermittent warfare (1861–86) with the Apaches, who were led by CochiseCochise
, c.1815–1874, chief of the Chiricahua group of Apache in Arizona. He was friendly with the whites until 1861, when some of his relatives were hanged by U.S. soldiers for a crime they did not commit. Afterward he waged relentless war against the U.S.
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 and later GeronimoGeronimo
, c.1829–1909, leader of a Chiricahua group of the Apaches, b. Arizona. As a youth he participated in the forays of Cochise, Victorio, and other Apache leaders.
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. General George CrookCrook, George,
1828–90, U.S. general, b. near Dayton, Ohio, grad. West Point, 1852. During the Civil War, Crook commanded a regiment of Ohio volunteers as colonel.
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 waged a successful campaign against the Apaches in 1882–85, and in 1886 Geronimo finally surrendered to federal troops. When Confederate troops were routed and Union soldiers went east to fight in the Civil War, settlement was abandoned. It was resumed after the war and encouraged by the Homestead ActHomestead Act,
1862, passed by the U.S. Congress. It provided for the transfer of 160 acres (65 hectares) of unoccupied public land to each homesteader on payment of a nominal fee after five years of residence; land could also be acquired after six months of residence at $1.
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 (1862), the Desert Land Act (1877), and the Carey Land ActCarey Land Act,
sponsored by Sen. Joseph M. Carey and passed by the U.S. Congress in 1894. The act provided for the transfer to Western states of U.S.-owned desert lands on the condition that they be irrigated. Settlers were permitted to buy up to 160 acres (64.
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 (1894)—all of which turned land over to settlers and required them to develop it.

In the 1870s mining flourished, and by the following decade the Copper Queen Company at Bisbee was exploiting one of the area's largest copper deposits. In 1877 silver was discovered at TombstoneTombstone,
city (1990 pop. 1,220), Cochise co., SE Ariz.; inc. 1881. With its pleasant climate and legendary past, Tombstone is a well-known tourist attraction. The city became a national historic landmark in 1962.
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, setting off a boom that drew throngs of prospectors to Arizona but lasted less than 10 years. Tombstone also became famous for its lawlessness; Wyatt EarpEarp, Wyatt Berry Stapp
, 1848–1929, law officer, gambler, and gunfighter of the American West, b. Monmouth, Ill. After serving as police officer in Wichita (1874) and Dodge City (1876–77), Kans.
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 and his brothers gained their reputations during the famous gunfight (1881) at the O. K. Corral. By 1880 the Santa Fe and Southern Pacific railroads both extended into Arizona. Ranching began to thrive and sheep raising grew from solely a Navajo occupation to a major enterprise among white settlers. After 1897, the U.S. Forestry Bureau issued grazing permits to protect public land from depletion.

In 1912, Arizona, still a frontier territory, attained statehood. Its constitution created a storm, with such "radical" political features as initiative, referendum, and judicial recall. Only after recall had been deleted did President Taft sign the statehood bill. Once admitted to the Union, Arizona restored the recall provision.

Modern Development

Irrigation, spurred by the Desert Land Act and by Mormon immigration, promoted farming in the southern part of the territory. By 1900, diverted streams were irrigating 200,000 acres (80,940 hectares). With the opening of the Roosevelt Dam (1911), a federally financed project, massive irrigation projects transformed Arizona's valleys. Although Arizona's mines were not unionized until the mid-1930s, strikes occurred at the copper mines of Clifton and Morenci in 1915 and at the Bisbee mines in 1917.

During World War II, defense industries were established in Arizona. Manufacturing, notably electronic industries, continued to develop after the war, especially around Phoenix and Tucson; in the 1960s, manufacturing achieved economic supremacy over mining and agriculture in Arizona. During the 1970s and 80s the state experienced phenomenal economic growth as it and other Sun BeltSun Belt
or Sunbelt,
southern tier of the United States, focused on Florida, Texas, Arizona, and California, and extending as far north as Virginia. The term gained wide use in the 1970s, when the economic and political impact of the nation's overall shift in
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 states attracted high-technology industries with enormous growth potential.

Arizona has contributed several major figures to national politics. Among them, Senator Barry M. GoldwaterGoldwater, Barry Morris,
1909–98, U.S. senator (1953–65, 1969–87), b. Phoenix, Ariz. He studied at the Univ. of Arizona, but left in 1929 to enter his family's department-store business.
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, the unsuccessful 1964 Republican candidate for the U.S. presidency, was long the standard bearer for American conservatism. Democrat Stewart L. UdallUdall, Stewart Lee
, 1920–2010, U.S. cabinet member and environmentalist, b. St. Johns, Ariz. After serving in World War II, Udall practiced law in Tucson until elected to the U.S. House of Representatives in 1954.
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 served as secretary of the interior under presidents Kennedy and Johnson.

With the development of irrigation and hydroelectric projects along the Colorado River and its tributaries, water rights became a subject of litigation between Arizona and California. In 1963 the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that Arizona had rights to a share of the water from the Colorado's main stream and sole water rights over tributaries within Arizona. In 1968, Congress authorized the Central Arizona Project, a 335-mi (539-km) canal system to divert water from the Colorado River to the booming metropolitan areas of Phoenix and Tucson. The canal, which uses dams, tunnels, and pumps to raise the water 1,247 ft (380 m) to the desert plain, was opposed by environmentalists, who feared it would damage desert ecosystems. Construction was completed in 1991, at a cost of over $3.5 billion.

In 1992 a six-year political controversy ended when Arizona voters approved a proposal to observe an annual state holiday honoring Martin Luther KingKing, Martin Luther, Jr.,
1929–68, American clergyman and civil-rights leader, b. Atlanta, Ga., grad. Morehouse College (B.A., 1948), Crozer Theological Seminary (B.D., 1951), Boston Univ. (Ph.D., 1955).
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, Jr. The state again became a focus of national (and international) controversy in 2010 when it enacted a law requiring local law officers to check the status of someone stopped for an offense if the person is believed to an illegal alien; although that aspect of the law was upheld in 2012 by the U.S. Supreme Court, other aspects were struck down.

Bibliography

See E. H. Peplow, Jr., History of Arizona (3 vol., 1958); Univ. of Arizona Faculty, Arizona: Its People and Resources (rev. 2d ed. 1972); M. R. Comeaux, Arizona: A Geography (1982); T. Miller, ed., Arizona: The Land and Its People (1986); J. E. Officer, Hispanic Arizona (1987); M. Trimble, Arizona: A Cavalcade of History (1989).

Arizona State Information

Phone: (602) 542-4900
www.az.gov


Area (sq mi):: 113998.30 (land 113634.57; water 363.73) Population per square mile: 52.30
Population 2005: 5,939,292 State rank: 0 Population change: 2000-20005 15.80%; 1990-2000 40.00% Population 2000: 5,130,632 (White 63.80%; Black or African American 3.10%; Hispanic or Latino 25.30%; Asian 1.80%; Other 19.60%). Foreign born: 12.80%. Median age: 34.20
Income 2000: per capita $20,275; median household $40,558; Population below poverty level: 13.90% Personal per capita income (2000-2003): $25,660-$27,232
Unemployment (2004): 5.00% Unemployment change (from 2000): 1.00% Median travel time to work: 24.90 minutes Working outside county of residence: 4.80%

List of Arizona counties:

  • Apache County
  • Cochise County
  • Coconino County
  • Gila County
  • Graham County
  • Greenlee County
  • La Paz County
  • Maricopa County
  • Mohave County
  • Navajo County
  • Pima County
  • Pinal County
  • Santa Cruz County
  • Yavapai County
  • Yuma County
  • Arizona Parks

    Arizona

     

    state in the western USA. Area, 295,000 sq km; population, 1,665,000(1967). Administrative center, Phoenix.

    In the center of the state there are mountains with altitudes up to 3,861 m. The Colorado and Gila desert plateaus, dissected by rivers of the Colorado River basin, lie in the northeast and southeast respectively. The main branches of Arizona’s economy are irrigated farming (about 500,000 hectares [ha] in 1965) and mining. The primary agricultural crop is cotton (138,000 ha in 1965), which occupies about one-third of the state’s cultivated area. There is considerable cultivation of alfalfa and vegetables, and there are citrus orchards. Livestock raising is carried on mainly for the production of meat and wool (1, 116,000 head of cattle, 669,000 head of sheep in 1966). As small farmers have been dispossessed of the land, the number of farms has decreased from 18,500 in 1940 to 6,200 in 1965. The Hoover Hydroelectric Plant (Boulder Dam, capacity 1.3 million kilowatts), one of the largest in the country, is located on the Colorado River on the border with Nevada. Arizona holds first place in the USA in output of copper, with deposits at Miami, Bisbee, and Morenci. In 1965, 638,000 tons—56 percent of the entire output of copper in the USA—were extracted. Arizona also plays an important role in the mining of silver (171,000 kg in 1965) and gold (4,300 kg). There are factories for nonferrous metallurgy (smelting of copper and production of secondary aluminum in Phoenix, and others), for metalworking, and for the food industry. There are also rocket and radioelectronic industries. The state is a center for tourism: the Grand Canyon National Park is in Arizona.

    V. M. GOKHMAN

    Arizona

    Forty-eighth state; admitted on February 14, 1912

    State capital: Phoenix

    Nickname: Grand Canyon State

    State motto: Ditat Deus (Latin “God Enriches”)

    State amphibian: Arizona tree frog (Hyla eximia)

    State bird: Cactus wren (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus)

    State butterfly: Two-tailed swallowtail

    State colors: Federal blue and old gold

    State fish: Apache trout (Salmo apache)

    State flower: Blossom of the saguaro cactus (Carnegiea gigantea)

    State fossil: Petrified wood

    State gem: Turquoise

    State mammal: Ringtail (Bassariscus astutus)

    State neckwear: Bola tie

    State reptile: Arizona ridge-nosed rattlesnake (Crotalus willardi)

    State songs: “Arizona March Song” and “Arizona”

    State tree: Palo Verde (Cercidium floridum)

    More about state symbols at:

    www.governor.state.az.us/kids/State_Facts.asp
    http://www.lib.az.us/museum/symbols.cfm

    SOURCES:

    AmerBkDays-2000, p. 141
    AnnivHol-2000, p. 27

    STATE OFFICES:

    State web site:
    www.az.gov

    Office of the Governor
    1700 W Washington St
    Executive Tower 9th Fl
    Phoenix, AZ 85007
    602-542-4331
    fax: 602-542-7601
    www.governor.state.az.us

    Secretary of State
    1700 W Washington St
    West Wing 7th Fl
    Phoenix, AZ 85007
    602-542-4285
    fax: 602-542-1575
    www.azsos.gov

    Arizona State Library
    1700 W Washington St
    Rm 200
    Phoenix, AZ 85007
    602-542-4035
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    www.lib.az.us

    Legal Holidays:

    Constitution Commemoration DaySep 17
    Martin Luther King Jr. Birthday and Civil Rights DayJan 17, 2011; Jan 16, 2012; Jan 21, 2013; Jan 20, 2014; Jan 19, 2015; Jan 18, 2016; Jan 16, 2017; Jan 15, 2018; Jan 21, 2019; Jan 20, 2020; Jan 18, 2021; Jan 17, 2022; Jan 16, 2023

    Arizona

    a state of the southwestern US: consists of the Colorado plateau in the northeast, including the Grand Canyon, divided from desert in the southwest by mountains rising over 3750 m (12 500 ft.). Capital: Phoenix. Pop.: 5 580 811 (2003 est.). Area: 293 750 sq. km (113 417 sq. miles)
    References in periodicals archive ?
    Project Location: Fort Huachuca, Arizona, United States
    RESULTS in the third round of the WGC Accenture World Match Play, Gallery GC, Tucson, Arizona, United States (USA unless stated, seeded positions in brackets): Justin Rose (Eng) bt Charles Howell III 3 & 2, T Immelman (SA) v I Poulter (Eng) won 2&1, P Casey (Eng) bt S Micheel 2 up, G Ogilvy (Aus) v N Fasth (Swe) won 2&1, H Stenson (Swe) bt A Baddeley (Aus) won 4&3.
    MindTree Ltd declared that its board has granted approval for the acquisition of the entire Ownership Interest in Discoverture Solutions LLC, a limited liability company incorporated under the laws of the Arizona, United States.
    The Mobile Business Solution from Cisco and Nokia is currently being commercially deployed with more than 100 customers, including the city of Biel, Switzerland; the city of Maastrich, The Netherlands; Millipore, United States; Omicron, Austria; SESCAM, Spain; Tifco Hotels, Ireland; and University of Arizona, United States.