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Arrian Lucius Flavius Arrianus 'Xenophon'
BirthplaceNicomedia, Bithynia, Asia Minor
Historian, Public servant, military commander and Philosopher


(Flavius Arrianus) (âr`ēən), fl. 2d cent. A.D., Greek historian, philosopher, and general, b. Nicomedia in Bithynia. He was governor of Cappadocia under Emperor Hadrian and in A.D. 134 repulsed an invasion of the Alans. His chief work is the Anabasis, the prime extant source on Alexander the GreatAlexander the Great
or Alexander III,
356–323 B.C., king of Macedon, conqueror of much of Asia. Youth and Kingship

The son of Philip II of Macedon and Olympias, he had Aristotle as his tutor and was given a classical education.
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. Modeled on XenophonXenophon
, c.430 B.C.–c.355 B.C., Greek historian, b. Athens. He was one of the well-to-do young disciples of Socrates before leaving Athens to join the Greek force (the Ten Thousand) that was in the service of Cyrus the Younger of Persia.
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's famous book, the Anabasis relies chiefly on the writings of two of Alexander's generals (Ptolemy IPtolemy I
(Ptolemy Soter) , d. 284 B.C., king of ancient Egypt, the first ruler of the Macedonian dynasty (or Lagid dynasty), son of a Macedonian named Lagus. He was one of the leading generals of Alexander the Great, and after Alexander's death (323 B.C.
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 and Aristobulus) for source material. Other extant works include the Indica (an account of a voyage of Alexander's general NearchusNearchus
, fl. 324 B.C., Macedonian general, b. Crete; friend of Alexander the Great. In 325 B.C., Alexander, about to leave India, had a fleet built in the Indus to transport part of the army home. Nearchus was put in command.
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 to India) and parts of his edition of and commentaries on the Discourses of Epictetus.


See The Landmark Arrian, The Campaigns of Alexander: Anabasis Alexandrou, ed. by J. Romm (2010).

References in classic literature ?
It converses with truths that have always been spoken in the world, and becomes conscious of a closer sympathy with Zeno and Arrian than with persons in the house.
Such was the successless armament of Xerxes described by Herodotus, or the successful expedition of Alexander related by Arrian.
He says that the new element was the post of chiliarch with command over two pre-existing units of 500 men, whereas Arrian states that for the cavalry the innovation was at the junior level, with each squadron divided into two companies.
Plutarch and Arrian clearly believed this source to be genuine and authoritative, even though it is not cited for any other military or political event in the history of Alexander's campaigns.
6) A tradition transmitted by the Greek sources, however, traces this alleged Kayanid descent further back, making Arsak and Tiridates, the two brothers who founded the dynasty, descendants of the Persian King Artaxerxes (see Wolski 1974: 171-72 for the parallel texts of the variants by Arrian and Syncellus).
From there it had a long and varied history, appearing in various guises in--among others--Plutarch, Arrian, the Alexander Romance and writings attributed to a fifth-century churchman named Palladius, whose text has evidently been reworked to reflect a Christian view.
In this respect, the author closely follows the narratives of Arrian and Diodorus Siculus - inevitably prompting the query, why read Ellis if one has the ancient literary sources at hand?
31) Furthermore, it seems likely that Alexander did vilify the Persians, as Arrian suggests in Alexander's speech before the battle of Issus (A.
Cavalrymen were all expected to use the bow, according to Arrian, Tactica 43.
Part one, entitled "Epic and Elegiac Poetry", includes chapters on Homer, Hesiod, The Homeric Hymns, Apollonius of Rhodes, Callimachus, Theocritus and Mo schus; part two is concerned with Historiography and deals with Herodotus, Thucydides, Xenophon, Polybius, Arrian, Appian, Cassius Dio, and Herodian; Choral Lyric is the focus of part three, the sole chapter of which focuses on two authors, Pindar and Bacchylides; part four concentrates on Drama and, in addition to the more obvious ancient exponents of this genre (Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides, Aristophanes and Menander), Lycophron's narrative technique also comes under scrutiny (see below).
Introduction to All the Works of Epictetus, Which Are Now Extant; Consisting of His Discourses, preserved by Arrian, in Four Books, The Enchiridion, and Fragments, trans.

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