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(pär`thēə), ancient country of Asia, SE of the Caspian Sea. In its narrowest limits it consisted of a mountainous region intersected with fertile valleys, lying S of Hyrcania and corresponding roughly to the modern Iranian province of Khorasan. It was included in the Assyrian and Persian empires, the Macedonian empire of Alexander the Great, and the Syrian empire. The Parthians were famous horsemen and archers and may have been of Scythian stock.

In 250 B.C., led by ArsacesArsaces
, fl. 250 B.C., founder of the Parthian dynasty of the Arsacids, which ruled Persia from c.250 B.C. to A.D. 226. Arsaces led a successful revolt against Antiochus II of Syria, when Antiochus was engaged in war with Egypt and trying to put down a revolt in Bactria.
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, they freed themselves from the rule of the Seleucids and founded the Parthian empire. At its height, in the 1st cent. B.C., this empire extended from the Euphrates across Afghanistan to the Indus and from the Oxus (Amu Darya) to the Indian Ocean. Defeating Marcus Licinius Crassus in 53 B.C., the Parthians threatened Syria and Asia Minor, but they were turned back by Ventidius in 39–38 B.C.

Under TrajanTrajan
(Marcus Ulpius Trajanus) , c.A.D. 53–A.D. 117, Roman emperor (A.D. 98–A.D. 117). Born in Spain, he was the first non-Italian to become head of the empire. Trajan served in the East, in Germany, and in Spain. He was adopted in A.D.
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 the Romans advanced (A.D. 114–16) as far as the Persian Gulf, but they withdrew in the reign of HadrianHadrian
, A.D. 76–138, Roman emperor (117–138), b. Spain. His name in full was Publius Aelius Hadrianus. An orphan, he became the ward of Trajan. Hadrian distinguished himself as a commander (especially in Dacia) and as an administrator.
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 and were never again so successful against the Parthians. Then began the decline of the empire, which in A.D. 226 was conquered by Ardashir IArdashir I
[another form of Artaxerxes], d. 240, king of Persia (226?–240). He overthrew the last Parthian king, Artabanus IV, entered Ctesiphon, and reunited Persia out of the confusion of Seleucid decline.
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 (Artaxerxes), the founder of the Persian dynasty of the Sassanids. The chief Parthian cities were EcbatanaEcbatana
, capital of ancient Media, later the summer residence of Achaemenid and Parthian kings, beautifully situated at the foot of Mt. Elvend and NE of Behistun. In 549 B.C. it was captured by Cyrus the Great.
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, SeleuciaSeleucia
, ancient city of Mesopotamia, on the Tigris below modern Baghdad. Founded (c.312 B.C.) by Seleucus I, it soon replaced Babylon as the main center for east-west commerce through the valley.
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, CtesiphonCtesiphon
, ruined ancient city, 20 mi (32 km) SE of Baghdad, Iraq, on the left bank of the Tigris opposite Seleucia and at the mouth of the Diyala River. After 129 B.C. it was the winter residence of the Parthian kings. Ctesiphon grew rapidly and was of renowned splendor.
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, and Hecatompylos. Such expressions as "a Parthian shot" were suggested by the Parthian ruse in which mounted men used their arrows effectively while in simulated flight.


See N. C. Debevoise, A Political History of Parthia (1938, repr. 1970); P. B. Lozinski, The Original Homeland of the Parthians (1959); M. A. R. Colledge, The Parthians (1967).


a country in ancient Asia, southeast of the Caspian Sea, that expanded into a great empire dominating SW Asia in the 2nd century bc. It was destroyed by the Sassanids in the 3rd century ad
References in periodicals archive ?
The third variant was used in Arsacid territories at least as early as 48/7 BC.
The Gorpiaios embolimos of the Trasaka reliquary demonstrates that the Macedonian calendar it used followed the Arsacid rather than the Seleucid solar alignment.
However, if this inscription uses the Arsacid Macedonian calendar, its epoch cannot fall in either year.
Since Gorpiaios embolimos is the same month as Ululu II, we may avoid this difficulty by using the corresponding Babylonian years as the candidate epochs: 66/5 BC (= year 182 in the Arsacid era [AE]) and 47/6 BC (= AE 201).
The use of fahla (< MP pahlaw) for designating Media goes back to the late Arsacid times; see Henning 1958: 95.
Dahistan took its name from the Dahae, a Saka branch from which the Parni tribe moved southeast to Parthia and established the Arsacid dynasty.
The concluding points concerning Arsacid jewelry (4 pp.
The Arsacids, too, had done so before him, but without the mediation of the mythical Bahman.
Artaxerxes If, the historical figure metamorphosed into Bahman by the Zoroastrian tradition, had already been chosen by the Parthians as the Achaemenid ancestor of the Arsacids some two centuries before the rise of Ardasir, presumably in their hostility toward Hellenistic cultural domination (Wolski 1974: 171-75).
That the Arsacids were descendants of Huang Di (the Yellow Emperor) and so on is a farfetched opinion of the first order.
Between the territory controlled by the so-called Northern Wei and Bukhara there were many other territories where descendants of the Arsacids or of people originally coming from Parthia may have decided to live sometime between the early third century and the time when An Tugen's ancestor decided to move to the territory controlled by the Northern Wei.
Kuwabara asserts that one cannot rely on the passage from the Xin Tang shu because to state that the Arsacids were descendants of Huang Di (the Yellow Emperor) is a farfetched opinion of the first order.