Artaxerxes


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Related to Artaxerxes: Artaxerxes II, Nehemiah

Artaxerxes

 

Persian kings of the Achaemenid Dynasty.

Artaxerxes I, “Long Hand.” Artaxerxes I reigned from 465 to 424 B.C. He attained the throne after his father Xerxes I was killed as the result of a court conspiracy. At the beginning of his reign Artaxerxes put down an uprising by the Egyptians, who were supported by the Athenians; the latter had been engaged in war with the Achaemenid Empire. In 454 the Persians destroyed the Athenian fleet in the Nile Delta. After the Athenian victory at Salamis in 449 (on Cyprus), Artaxerxes concluded the Peace of Callias, which brought the Greco-Persian wars to an end. In accordance with this peace treaty, Artaxerxes I recognized the political independence of the Greek cities of Asia Minor. Despite growing separatist tendencies among the members of the Persian aristocracy—for example, the rebellion of Megabyzus, circa 449 B.C.—and uprisings of subject peoples, the central authority remained quite powerful during the rule of Artaxerxes I, and the integrity of the Achaemenid state was basically preserved.

Artaxerxes II, Mnēmon. Artaxerxes II reigned from 404 to 358 B.C. He was the oldest son of Darius II. At the beginning of his reign Artaxerxes II engaged in a struggle for the throne with his younger brother Cyrus, the ruler of Asia Minor. Despite a number of successes in foreign policy—for example, the destruction of the Spartan fleet at Cnidus in 394 and the Peace of Antalcidas in 386—during the reign of Artaxerxes II the Achaemenid state became weaker. Several revolts were launched against Artaxerxes II by satraps, vassal princes, and semidependent tribes (the Cadusians and others).

Artaxerxes III, Ochus. Artaxerxes III reigned from 358 to 338 B.C. He was the son of Artaxerxes II; he became king after the liquidation of his elder brothers, in which he took an active part. With great energy Artaxerxes III attempted to restore the integrity of the Achaemenid state. He prohibited the satraps from maintaining mercenary troops, and with great cruelty he suppressed a number of uprisings (in Asia Minor and Phoenicia and on Cyprus). In 341 he again annexed Egypt, which had seceded from the Achaemenid state at the end of the fifth century B.C. Artaxerxes III was murdered by his close adviser, the eunuch Bagoas.

E. A. GRANTOVSKII

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This confusion seems to have resulted at least in part from the difficult narrative arrangement of Ezra 4, which jumps ahead to the reign of Achashverosh and Artaxerxes I before returning to the chronological narrative and the reign of Darius I in 4:24 and chapter 5.
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The story is set at the height of the Persian Empire, and the Persians who populate it have a secure basis in Achaemenid history: King Artaxerxes II (405-359 BCE) is the ruler who figures in Xenophon's Anabasis, whose brother, Cyrus the Younger, rebelled against him and lost his life at the Battle of Cunaxa in 401 BCE; he was the ruler whose health was cared for by Ctesias of Cindus, who worked as a royal physician at the Persian court.
The most lavish play of all was the first, known in Russian as Artakserksevo deistvo, or "The Artaxerxes Play," which made its debut on 17 October 1672.
On the authority of Orosius, Bacon notes that during Artaxerxes III of Persia's conquest of Egypt in 343 BC, many Jews were forced to migrate to Hyrcania on the Caspian Sea.
Abraham is anachronistically identified as a Jew (Judaism historically developed out of the remnant of Judah after the exile), and the biblical materials are treated so cavalierly that Salkin has Ezra and Nehemiah's being sent back to Jerusalem by King Cyrus in the sixth century, despite the Bible's placing this event in the reign of King Artaxerxes in the late fifth or early fourth century.
It is Ezra, with the support of the Persian King, Artaxerxes (ruled 464-424 BCE), who returns from Babylon to Jerusalem with a decree and the authority from the king to take the helm in rebuilding the temple and to harshly punish those who stand in his way.
Some have seen a certain symbolism in the fact that the man who became the founder of the Serbian medieval state was named after the biblical Nehemiah, who with the permission of the Persian Emperor Artaxerxes, rebuilt the walls of Jerusalem (Nehemiah 4:17-18).
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Lincoln's study climaxes in an infamous Greek account of torture at the Persian court, contextualized through Avestan texts and inscriptions of Artaxerxes II (87-94).
Anabasis (Greek for "Uphill") is the most famous work of the Greek professional soldier and writer Xenophon who accompanied the Ten Thousand, a large army of Greek mercenaries hired by Cyrus the Younger, who intended to seize the throne of Persia from his brother, Artaxerxes II.
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