Artaxerxes I


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Artaxerxes I

(är'təzûrk`sēz), d. 425 B.C., king of ancient Persia (464–425 B.C.), of the dynasty of the Achaemenis. Artaxerxes is the Greek form of "Ardashir the Persian." He succeeded his father, Xerxes IXerxes I
(Xerxes the Great) , d. 465 B.C., king of ancient Persia (486–465 B.C.). His name in Old Persian is Khshayarsha, in the Bible Ahasuerus. He was the son of Darius I and Atossa, daughter of Cyrus the Great. After bringing (484 BC.
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, in whose assassination he had no part. The later weakness of the Persian Empire is commonly traced to the reign of Artaxerxes, and there were many uprisings in the provinces. The revolt of Egypt, aided by the Athenians, was put down (c.455 B.C.) after years of fighting, and Bactria was pacified. The Athenians sent a fleet under CimonCimon
, d. 449 B.C., Athenian general and statesman; son of Miltiades. He fought at Salamis and shared command (with Aristides) of the fleet sent to rescue the Asian Greek cities from Persian domination. From 478 to 477 he helped Aristides form the Delian League.
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 to aid a rebellion of Cyprus against Persian rule. The fleet won a victory, but the treaty negotiated by CalliasCallias
, fl. 449 B.C., Athenian statesman; he was related to Cimon and also to Aristides. He distinguished himself at the battle of Marathon (490 B.C.) and was a three-time winner of the Olympic chariot races. Callias was sent to Susa to negotiate for peace c.449 B.C.
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 was generally favorable to Persia. Important cultural exchanges occurred between Greece and Persia during Artaxerxes' reign. He was remembered warmly in the books of Ezra and Nehemiah because he authorized their revival of Judaism.