Although the Dharmasastras use the word grahya to affirm or deny what statements are "admissible" in a suit, (51) they and the Kautiliya Arthasastra
also use forms of grah- to mean 'arrest, detain' (e.
A Mahayanist Criticism of Arthasastra
, The Chapter on Royal Ethics in the Bodhisattva-gocaropaya-visaya-vikurvananirdesa-sutra," Annual Report of the International Research Institute for Advanced Buddhology at Soka University for the Academic Year 1999 (2000), 177-211.
He also makes theoretical recourse to the Indian text, Arthasastra
of Kautiliya (originally assigned to around the fourth century BC, but probably in its current text dated to the second to fourth centuries AD [Mabbett 1964; Trautmann 1971: 10]) to describe what he claims is a template of South Asian cities which gives different hierarchies of an ideal kingdom, concluding that the categories of sites he defines in the hinterland do not correspond with the contemporary settlement hierarchy advocated in the Arthasastra
Kautilya, a court adviser around 300 BC, is famous today as the author of what some consider an ultra-Machiavellian work of political science, Arthasastra
(see, among others, Pakistan Defence, www.
The Kautilya Arthasastra
, Part I, Sanskrit Text with a Glossary, R.
Therefore the expression should be rendered with "I bring goods" (pointing to the royal function of the god; see also Arthasastra
Ancient Indian texts, including the Manu smriti (48) and Arthasastra
(49) have numerous references to taxation.
Such fables have their origin not only in the political life of the times but also in the Mandala polity on which Kautiliya's Arthasastra
Vyasa's Mahabharata, Kautalya's Arthasastra
, or Bharata'
Ancient texts such as the Arthasastra
in India mention tolls as far back as the 4th century BC.
This has already been partly rectified by the insightful study of Derrett (1968), but even Derrett does not fully explore the history of these four terms as they occur in the earliest available document, Kautilya's Arthasastra
Our second point concerns Goonatilake's inconsistent approach to texts as he appears unhappy with the use of the Arthasastra
to present settlement hierarchies within Early Historic South Asia on account of its uncertain link to the fourth century BC whilst criticising our lack of reference to the Mahavamsa's description of Anuradhapura's urban plan.