Arthur Griffith


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Griffith, Arthur,

1872–1922, Irish statesman, founder of Sinn FéinSinn Féin
[Irish,=we, ourselves], Irish nationalist movement. It had its roots in the Irish cultural revival at the end of the 19th cent. and the growing nationalist disenchantment with the constitutional Home Rule movement.
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. He joined the nationalist movement as a young man. In 1899 he founded the United Irishman, in which he advocated that Irish members of Parliament withdraw from Westminster and organize their own assembly. His goal was the creation of a dual monarchy of England and Ireland, like that of Austria-Hungary. His ideas found adherents who, in 1905, formed the Sinn Féin. Griffith took no part in the Easter Rebellion of 1916, but he was imprisoned several times (1916–18) by the British. Elected to Parliament in 1918, he joined the other Sinn Féiners in forming Dáil ÉireannDáil Éireann
[Irish,=diet of Ireland], the popular representative body of the Oireachtas, or National Parliament, of the Republic of Ireland. The second, smaller chamber, the Saenad Éireann, or Senate, has very limited powers, and the executive, as
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 and was elected its vice president. He led the Irish delegation that negotiated the treaty (1921) establishing the Irish Free State. When Eamon De Valera, president of the Dáil, rejected the treaty, Griffith succeeded to his office. He died suddenly at the beginning of the civil war.

Bibliography

See biographies by P. Colum (1959) and V. E. Glandon (1985); study by C. Younger, A State of Disunion (1972).

Griffith, Arthur

 

Born Mar. 31. 1872, in Dublin; died there Aug. 12, 1922. Irish political figure. Bourgeois nationalist and professional journalist.

Griffith was one of the founders of the Sinn Fein Party (1905) and was the leader of its right wing. From 1910 to 1917 he was chairman and then vice-chairman of the party. He refused to take part in the Irish uprising of 1916. During the guerrilla war against Great Britain (1919–21), Griffith was in prison from 1920 and negotiated with the British government from there. On Dec. 6, 1921, he signed the Anglo-Irish treaty that created the Irish Free State (Eire) in southern and central Ireland while preserving British dominance of Northern Ireland. Having become in January 1922 the head of the new state, he took part in organizing reprisals against the opponents of the treaty.

L. I. GOL’MAN

References in periodicals archive ?
This book is as much a biography of Arthur Griffith as an alternative history of the period from
65) By focusing on the island's storied past, Arthur Griffith managed to identify a critical element necessary to the creation of Irish nationalism, just as Tilak had recognized the efficacy of reviving Hindu festivals.
See also Richard Davis, Arthur Griffith and Non-Violent Sinn Fein (Dublin, 1974), 107, 127, 151.
In the years 1914-16 the Irish Citizen became the leading voice of Irish feminism in the most heterogeneous sense when political leaders such as Arthur Griffith and Eamon de Valera were notoriously reluctant to support female equality publicly.
Instead, the political space that the party had created, "with hundreds of public meetings, copious amounts of printed literature, street protests and electioneering, was eventually filled by other groups, particularly Arthur Griffith and his Sinn Fein party" (149).
Politician and writer Arthur Griffith has very different headstone over his grave as it shows a broken pillar.
Irish nationalist Arthur Griffith founded Sinn Fein in Dublin - campaigning for Irish independence.
She is so good, in fact, that she is able to expose the chauvinistic folly of Arthur Griffith, who might serve as the sectarian proxy of Mary O'Malley's inept Daniel Corkery.
Court president Mr Justice Matthew Deery was told how Lee was playing in Arthur Griffith Park, Lucan, Co Dublin, in April last year when a cement slab fell from a wall, crushing the tip of his right-hand third finger.
1905: Irish nationalist Arthur Griffith presented his Sinn FAin Policy, which denounced as unlawful the 1800 Union of Great Britain and Ireland.
Hated by many British as a man who had betrayed his class and nation, not trusted by many Irish nationalists as a man who had served with distinction in the forces (possibly in intelligence) of the enemy (that "dammed Englishman," in the words of Arthur Griffith, page 219), Childers became an isolated figure, reviled from many sides, held back from playing an important role by his so-called allies--led on, Piper concludes, by his younger cousin, Robert Barton.
Sinn Fein, founded in 1905 by Arthur Griffith, has become the largest nationalist party in Northern Ireland and has also grown significantly in the Republic.