Wellington, Arthur Wellesley, 1st duke of

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Wellington, Arthur Wellesley, 1st duke of,

1769–1852, British soldier and statesman.

Military Achievements

Wellesley entered the army in 1787 and, aided by his brother Richard (later Marquess WellesleyWellesley, Richard Colley Wellesley, 1st Marquess,
1760–1842, British colonial administrator; brother of Arthur Wellesley, 1st duke of Wellington.
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), rose rapidly in rank. He held a command in Flanders (1794–95) and in 1796 went with his regiment to India. After his brother's appointment (1797) as governor-general of India, he received command of a division in the invasion of Mysore and became (1799) governor of Seringapatam. In 1800 he defeated the robber chieftain, Dhundia Wagh, and in 1802 he was made major general. In 1803 he moved against the MarathasMarathas
or Mahrattas
, Marathi-speaking people of W central India, known for their ability as warriors and their devotion to Hinduism. From their homeland in Maharashtra their chieftains rose to power in the 17th cent.
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, breaking their force of about 40,000 with an army of about 10,000 in a surprise attack. A valuable civil and military adviser to his brother, he returned with him to England in 1805 and was knighted. His election (1806) to Parliament and appointment (1807) as Irish secretary did not prevent him from leading (1807) an expedition against the Danes.

In 1808 he led an expedition to assist Portugal in its revolt against the French. He defeated the French at Roliça and Vimeiro, but was superseded in command. In 1809 he returned to the Iberian Peninsula, where he ultimately assumed command of the British, Portuguese, and Spanish forces in the Peninsular WarPeninsular War,
1808–14, fought by France against Great Britain, Portugal, Spanish regulars, and Spanish guerrillas in the Iberian Peninsula. Origin and Occupation
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. Taking advantage of the irregular terrain, Portuguese and Spanish nationalism, and Napoleon's preoccupation with other campaigns and projects, he drove the French beyond the Pyrenees by 1813, though his campaigns were rendered difficult by poor support from the British government. Late in 1813 he invaded S France, and he was at Toulouse when news of Napoleon's abdication (Apr., 1814) arrived.

Returning to England, he received many honors and was created duke of Wellington. He served for a short time as ambassador to Paris, then succeeded Viscount Castlereagh at the peace conference in Vienna; but when Napoleon returned from Elba, he took command of the allied armies. There followed his most famous victory, that in the Waterloo campaignWaterloo campaign,
last action of the Napoleonic Wars, ending with the battle of Waterloo. Napoleon I, who escaped from Elba in Feb., 1815, and entered Paris on Mar. 20, soon faced a European coalition.
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, won in conjunction with the Prussian general, Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher. Wellington, again lavishly honored, took charge of the army of occupation in France, exerting his influence to restrain harsh treatment of the defeated French.

Political Career

Wellington, "the iron duke," with the soldier's taste for discipline and order and the aristocrat's distrust of democratic institutions, lent his great prestige to the Tory policy of repression at home and took a cabinet post as master general of the ordnance (1819). He represented England at the Congress of Verona (1822), where he opposed intervention in the Spanish revolt, and at the conference at St. Petersburg (1826) that concerned itself with the revolt in Greece, but he was not in sympathy with the liberal foreign policy of George CanningCanning, George,
1770–1827, British statesman. Canning was converted to Toryism by the French Revolution, became a disciple of William Pitt, and was his undersecretary for foreign affairs (1796–99).
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 and resigned (1827) when Canning became prime minister.

In 1828 Wellington himself reluctantly became prime minister. He bowed to public clamor and allowed the repeal of the Test Act and Corporation Act and the passage of the Catholic EmancipationCatholic Emancipation,
term applied to the process by which Roman Catholics in the British Isles were relieved in the late 18th and early 19th cent. of civil disabilities.
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 bill (reforms he had previously opposed), but he lost the support of much of the Tory party as a consequence. When he declared against parliamentary reform, the ministry fell (1830), and his unpopularity subjected him to an assault by a mob. He refused to form a government in 1834, but served under Sir Robert PeelPeel, Sir Robert,
1788–1850, British statesman. The son of a rich cotton manufacturer, whose baronetcy he inherited in 1830, Peel entered Parliament as a Tory in 1809.
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 as foreign secretary (1834–35) and again (1841–46) as minister without portfolio. On the repeal of the corn lawscorn laws,
regulations restricting the export and import of grain, particularly in England. As early as 1361 export was forbidden in order to keep English grain cheap. Subsequent laws, numerous and complex, forbade export unless the domestic price was low and forbade import
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 he supported Peel, while not wholly approving his policy. In 1842 he was made commander in chief for life. He is buried in St. Paul's Cathedral.

Bibliography

See his dispatches and other papers (pub. in 3 series, 1834–39, 1858–72, 1867–80); biographies by J. W. Fortescue (1925, 3d ed. 1960), P. Guedalla (1931), C. Petrie (1956), E. Longford (2 vol., 1969–72), A. Bryant (1971), and C. Hibbert (1997); studies by G. Davies (1954) and N. Thompson (1986).

References in periodicals archive ?
The Duke of Wellington, Arthur Wellesley, heard this story during the Peninsular War from 1808-1814 and was so moved he had a stone inscribed with a verse from the story and also planted a sequoia tree in the lovers' honour, which still stands today.
Arthur Wellesley (1769-1852), the first duke of Wellington, is the subject of this volume meant for general readers.
Arthur Wellesley, the Duke of Wellington, was born in Dublin and spent his childhood in Trim, Co Meath, in the 18th century.
In the early 19th century how was Arthur Wellesley better known?
of Alabama, Huntsville) provides a biography of Arthur Wellesley (1769-1852), the Duke of Wellington, and his four brothers, in the context of their interaction and who they were as a family.
WELLINGTON boots were made popular by Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, in the 19th Century.
In this the 16th book in the best-selling series - chronologically the third in the Mahratta campaign of Sir Arthur Wellesley, before the war with Napoleon - the whore's son has become an officer; a very junior officer, unsure of his promotion, uncomfortable with those who have bought their commissions.
While there is no actual evidence that the filet de boeuf en croute is named after Field Marshal Arthur Wellesley, it does have a passing resemblance to the durable footwear - but hopefully isn't as tough.
ARTHUR Wellesley was born in Dublin and spent much of his childhood in Trim, Co Meath, in the 18th century.
The Peninsular War began in 1808 when a small British force of 9,000 men landed at Mondego Bay, north of the Portuguese capital of Lisbon, under Lieutenant General Sir Arthur Wellesley.
The court heard Mr Wellesley, 39, gets PS30,000 a year from trust funds set up for descendants of Arthur Wellesley, the Duke of Wellington, who defeated Napoleon at Waterloo.