The use of human artificial chromosomes
overcomes both of these problems by providing a new chromosome in addition to the ones that already exist in the cells of the subject.
The researchers created the artificial chromosome
by assembling synthetic strands of DNA together, which were incorporated into the genome of a multi-celled organism, like yeast.
She asserted that human artificial chromosomes
are sometimes known as 'chromosome 47' as the normal complement of chromosomes in human cells is 46, explaining that the advantage in gene therapy is that the 47th chromosome doesn't interfere with the other 46 chromosomes, unlike conventional gene therapy where an extra gene is inserted often at random into the human genome.
The task of creating such herds may be made much easier by the artificial chromosomes
developed by Chromos Molecular Systems, near Vancouver, BC.
SCIENTISTS at the Medical Research Council in Edinburgh have developed artificial chromosomes
to help combat the defective genes which cause illnesses such as cystic fibrosis and haemophilia.
A DNA contig of this region spanning 2,400 kb was constructed from large-capacity yeast artificial chromosomes
and P1 bacteriophage clones (76).
The method was originally developed to improve upon older copy number assays that use long genomic fragments such as bacterial artificial chromosomes
The technique, developed by a team at the University of California, San Diego, uses bacterial artificial chromosomes
(BACs) to insert defective copies of genes into stem cells.
Laboratory techniques and applications for researchers investigating the identification and function of genes relevant to normal physiology and cancer are described by specialists in specific aspects of gene identification and full-length gene cloning, gene profiling, the chromatin modification of gene regulation, bacterial artificial chromosomes
, cancer cytogenetic analysis, and other topics.
In addition, these patents contain specific claims to methods of using the artificial chromosomes
for applications in engineering cell lines for biopharmaceutical manufacturing, for gene therapy, and for production of transgenic plants and animals.
Further in the future, parents will be able to add genes that improve their progeny's immune systems, mental acuity, and athletic abilities by installing artificial chromosomes
In 1996 Resnick, with NIEHS colleagues Vladimir Larionov and Natalya Kouprina, perfected a method using yeast artificial chromosomes
, or YACs, for the specific isolation of entire human genes.