Aru


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Aru

 

the Union of Urbanist Architects; existed in Moscow from 1928 to 1931.

In its declarations of 1928 and 1931 and in its theoretical works, ARU called upon architects to shift from planning individual buildings to creating a unified spatial system for a city, regarding the individual building as a part of the city. In the structural plan of a city, ARU called for special attention to be devoted to the functional zoning of urban territory with a view to future development. In contrast to the adherents of de-urbanism and urbanism, the members of ARU did not limit the processes of population distribution to a single type of settlement, but set the task of “. . . discovering general rules of organizing human settlements in their varying forms and development” (Sovietskaia arkhitektura, 1931, nos. 1–2, p. 19); they saw that the future rational planning and rebuilding of existing cities would be guaranteed by the elimination of social inequality among the population and by the gradual dying away of the class structure of society.

The theoretical positions of ARU have found a reflection in contemporary city planning. In 1931, ARU merged into the All-Union Architectural Scientific Society.

S. O. KHAN-MAGOMEDOV

References in periodicals archive ?
We can aim for the overall standings with both Aru and Ulissi, both of whom have showed they are going strong at the start of this season.
The ARU case has been sent to Ministry of Finance while
After the recruitment of the 2,000 personnel, the strength of the ARU will increase to 2,586.
Kai and Aru are two of only 33 being cared for by zoos in Europe.
Froome's former team-mate Rigoberto Uran, just 35secs behind Aru, and New Zealand's George Bennett both accepted 20-second penalties for taking water bottles from the roadside beyond the last permitted refuelling point.
Final leading positions after Stage 13, (Saint Girons - Pau - 101km): 1 = Warren Barguil (Fra) Team Sunweb 2hrs 36mins 29secs, 2 Nairo Quintana (Col) Movistar Team, 3 Alberto Contador (Spa) Trek-Segafredo both at same time, 4 Mikel Landa (Spa) Team Sky at 02secs, 5 Simon Yates (Gbr) Orica-Scott at 1min 39secs, 6 Daniel Martin (Irl) Quick-Step Floors at same time, 7 Michal Kwiatkowski (Pol) Team Sky at 01min 48secs, 8 Christopher Froome (Gbr) Team Sky, 9 Fabio Aru (Ita) Astana Pro Team, 10 Rigoberto Uran (Col) Cannondale-Drapac, 11 Romain Bardet (Fra) AG2R La Mondiale, 12 Louis Meintjes (Rsa) UAE Team Emirates all at same time.
Astana's Aru will wear the yellow jersey for the first time in his career, while Froome has handed it over for the second time in his, having also lost it after stage four in 2015 before reclaiming it at the end of stage seven and carrying it to Paris.
Astana's Aru will wear the yellow jersey for the first time in his career while Froome has handed it over for the second time in his, having also lost it after stage four in 2015 before reclaiming it three days later and carrying it to Paris.
Fabio Aru finished third to take the race lead by six seconds from Froome with stage winner Romain Bardet 25 seconds down and Rigoberto Uran, runner-up on the stage, ten seconds further back.
The Tour de France leader bumped shoulders with Yellow Jersey rival Fabio Aru in Sunday's ninth stage after the Italian launched an attack within seconds of the defending champion suffering a mechanical problem - a major breach of peloton etiquette.
CHRIS Froome took the yellow jersey from Sky team-mate Geraint Thomas in the Tour de France as Fabio Aru won stage five from Irishman Dan Martin at La Planche des Belles Filles.
Fabio Aru claimed his maiden Tour de France win on Wednesday, as defending champion Chris Froome snatched a yellow jersey he intends to wear all the way back to Paris.