Aruz

Aruz

 

(or arud), a system of versification that originated in Arabic poetry and spread to several countries of the Near and Middle East. The theory of aruz, first propounded in the works of the Arab philologist Khalil ibn Ahmad (eighth century), was elaborated by the later Persian theoreticians Rashid Watwata, Shams-e Qais Rāzi, and others. In aruz, the specific alternation of long and short syllables according to the law of Arabic phonetics is the rhythm-creating element in a poem. However, the system of aruz soon began to be used not only in languages with a vocalic structure similar to that of Arabic (Farsi), but also in the Turkic languages, where the vowels do not differ in length. A short syllable in aruz (“is the arbitrary symbol) is an open one with a short vowel, and a long syllable (-) is an open one with a long vowel; a 1½ syllable (--) is a closed one with a short vowel. A combination of long and short syllables forms a foot, the main element of a verse. There are eight basic feet: (1)---- (2)----(3)----(4)----(5)----(6)----- (7)----- (8)----. Different combinations of them produce 19 basic meters, seven with equal feet and 12 with varying feet. But because any basic foot of each meter can undergo a variety of changes (zihafa), the number of metric variants is substantially higher. Aruz remained in Arabic, Persian-Tadzhiki, and several Turkic literatures as the only system of versification until the 20th century, when attempts were made to introduce new meters (free verse, syllabic-tonic, and so forth).

REFERENCES

Krymskii, A. Arabskaia literatura ν ocherkakh i obraztsakh. Moscow, 1911.
Korsh, F. Drevneishii narodnyi stikh turetskikh piemen. St. Petersburg, 1909.
Vahid Tabrizi. Jam’-imukhtasar: Traktat o poetike. Moscow, 1959.
Bloch, A. Vers und Sprache im Altarabischen. Basel, 1946.
Weil, G. Grundriss und System der altarabischen Metren. Wiesbaden, 1958.
Khanlari Parviz Natal. Tahqiqa antaqadi dar aruza farsi. Tehran, 1327 A.H. (1948).

N. B. KONDYREVA

References in periodicals archive ?
Our conversations ranged from the aruz metrics of the thirteenth-century Turkish mystic Yunus Emre, whom Qahhar has translated into Uzbek, to the twentieth-century Nazim Hikmet, a secular poet of equally powerful social commitment as his predecessor.
KONYA, Dec 18, 2009 (TUR) -- Turkey's Chief EU negotiator and State Minister Egemen Bagis hosted a breakfast Friday in honour of ambassadors of EU countries who are visiting Konya to attend the 736th Sebi Aruz Ceremonies (the anniversary of the death of Mevlana Jalal al-Din Rumi).
The result is a book edited by ARUZ, FARKAS & VALTZ FINO, a feast for the eyes and a wide-ranging collection of 20 essays by 24 scholars from Russia, China, Europe and the USA.
JOAN ARUZ introduces six sets of essays intended to provide context for the items displayed in the exhibition at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City, this year, that gave the book its title.
On Tuesday evening, according to several accounts on social media and sources who spoke to The Daily Star, fighting broke out between the two sides in the Qardaha region, both on the outskirts of the town and in the village of Ain Aruz.
Suleyman Karaman, the director general of the Turkish Railways Administration (TCDD), said Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan had given instructions, and the TCDD was working to launch the high-speed train service between Ankara and the central city of Konya till Seb-i Aruz (Wedding Night) ceremonies on December 17, 2010.
Similarly, the section on "Myths and Monoliths" discusses aruz meter and divan poetry but the last chapter also has a section called Divan poetry, and since most of the information is similar or identical, readers may find it hard to get all the information they need in a single chapter and are recommended to refer to the index.
Iyi bir serh icin herseyden once grameri ve sentaksi ile birlikte Osmanli Turkcesinin ve Aruz veznini iyi bilinmesi gerektigini belirtir.
His poems are deeply rooted in traditional Turkish literature (he is one of the few refined practitioners of the classical aruz prosody), although he has also gained recognition for his modernist poems written in free verse.
Blumm & Thea Schwartz, Mono Lake and the Evolving Public 7,rust in Western Water, 37 Aruz.
The chain is expected to inaugurate the "Hilton Garden Inn Hotel" before the Seb-i Aruz ceremonies on December 17.
217) should be to Muscarella, in Harper, Aruz et al.