Arvid Bernhard Horn
Horn, Arvid Bernhard
Born Apr. 6, 1664, in Halikko, Finland; died Apr. 17, 1742, in Ekebyholm. Swedish soldier and statesman.
Horn began his military career in 1682 and in 1700 fought in the battle of Narva during the Northern War of 1700–21. In 1704 he became a lieutenant general and royal emissary to Poland, where he supported the election of Stanislaw Leszczyñski to the Polish throne and the signing of the Altranstädt Peace of 1706. He was chancellor of the kingdom from 1709 to 1719 and simultaneously president of the Royal Council from 1710 to 1715, but was removed from power because of his opposition to Charles XII’s policy of expansionism.
From 1720 to 1738, Horn was again chancellor and de facto ruler of the kingdom. He headed a nobiliary faction known as the Patriots (called the Caps beginning in the late 1730’s) and pursued a peaceful policy of maneuvering between the great powers, with a primary orientation toward Great Britain. In 1724 he entered into a defensive alliance with Russia. He pursued a policy of mercantilism. After the victory of the party of the Hats in the Riksdag in 1738, Horn retired from political life.