association

(redirected from Association of Ideas)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Legal, Financial, Wikipedia.
Related to Association of Ideas: laws of association

association,

in psychology, a connection between different sensations, feelings, or ideas by virtue of their previous occurrence together in experience. The concept of association entered contemporary psychology through the empiricist philosophers John Locke, George Berkeley, David Hume, and David HartleyHartley, David,
1705–57, English physician and philosopher, founder of associational psychology. In his Observations on Man (2 vol., 1749) he stated that all mental phenomena are due to sensations arising from vibrations of the white medullary substance of the brain
..... Click the link for more information.
, and the British associationist school of James MillMill, James,
1773–1836, British philosopher, economist, and historian, b. Scotland; father of John Stuart Mill. Educated as a clergyman at Edinburgh through the patronage of Sir John Stuart, Mill gave up the ministry and went to London in 1802 to pursue a career writing
..... Click the link for more information.
, John Stuart MillMill, John Stuart,
1806–73, British philosopher and economist. A precocious child, he was educated privately by his father, James Mill. In 1823, abandoning the study of law, he became a clerk in the British East India Company, where he rose to become head of the examiner's
..... Click the link for more information.
, and others (see associationismassociationism,
theory that all consciousness is the result of the combination, in accordance with the law of association, of certain simple and ultimate elements derived from sense experiences. It was developed by David Hartley and advanced by James Mill.
..... Click the link for more information.
). Translated into the stimulus-response terms of behaviorismbehaviorism,
school of psychology which seeks to explain animal and human behavior entirely in terms of observable and measurable responses to environmental stimuli. Behaviorism was introduced (1913) by the American psychologist John B.
..... Click the link for more information.
, association has been thought of as the basis of learning and conditioning. Paired experience and the principle of reinforcement are often invoked to explain associative learning. However, GestaltGestalt
[Ger.,=form], school of psychology that interprets phenomena as organized wholes rather than as aggregates of distinct parts, maintaining that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts.
..... Click the link for more information.
 psychologists, who believe that association between items is dependent on their relations to each other, interpret association as an aftereffect of perceptual organization. Psychoanalysispsychoanalysis,
name given by Sigmund Freud to a system of interpretation and therapeutic treatment of psychological disorders. Psychoanalysis began after Freud studied (1885–86) with the French neurologist J. M.
..... Click the link for more information.
 uses a technique known as free association, in which the client expresses thoughts exactly as they occur, even though they may seem irrelevant. This procedure is designed to reveal areas of conflict and to bring into consciousness traumatic events that have been repressed, the theory being that earlier thoughts and associations can be derived from current thoughts with similar patterns of association.

Bibliography

See N. J. Mackintosh, Conditioning and Associative Learning (1983).

association

A loose group of young stars of similar spectral type. OB associations are groups of massive and highly luminous main-sequence stars of spectral types O and B. They occur in regions rich in gas and dust in the spiral arms of the Galaxy. They have dimensions ranging from a few parsecs to several hundred parsecs. Often an open cluster is found near the center of an association, e.g. the Zeta Persei association surrounds h and Chi Persei. R associations are groups of bright young stars of slightly lower mass (3–10 solar masses) that illuminate reflection nebulae. T associations are groups of T Tauri stars, i.e. young stars of about the Sun's mass. Most contain less than 30 stars though some contain as many as 400. R and T associations are often found in the vicinity of young open clusters.

Associations are generally too sparsely populated to be gravitationally bound systems and there is strong evidence that they represent the aftereffects of comparatively recent multiple star births. In some cases the stars appear to be expanding from a common center: by extrapolating back their present velocities an estimate of the age of the system can be derived. For instance, the association II Persei shows an expansion age of slightly over one million years.

association

  1. any group sharing a common purpose or interest. See also GEMEINSCHAFT AND GESELLSCHAFT.
  2. (STATISTICS) the degree to which two VARIABLES are related. See CORRELATION.

association

[ə‚sō·sē′ā·shən]
(astronomy)
A sparsely populated grouping of very young stars that appear to have had a common origin and have not yet had time to disperse.
(chemistry)
Combination or correlation of substances or functions.
(ecology)
Major segment of a biome formed by a climax community, such as an oak-hickory forest of the deciduous forest biome.
(psychology)
A connection formed through learning.

association

1. Psychol the mental process of linking ideas so that the recurrence of one idea automatically recalls the other
2. Chem the formation of groups of molecules and ions, esp in liquids, held together by weak chemical bonds
3. Ecology a group of similar plants that grow in a uniform environment and contain one or more dominant species
References in classic literature ?
The subjective was converted by him into an objective; the mental phenomenon of the association of ideas (compare Phaedo) became a real chain of existences.
By a curious association of ideas, the young man always appeared as the murderer of whom Lebedeff had spoken when introducing him to Muishkin.
Snow Hill--Snow Hill too, coupled with a Saracen's Head: picturing to us by a double association of ideas, something stern and rugged
At this point, by a simple association of ideas, Mr Verloc was brought face to face with the necessity of going to bed some time or other that evening.
By a certain association of ideas, he at times almost imagined himself a murderer.
I laughingly expressed my satisfaction, but I must confess that I thought this association of ideas significant.
At last he said, "Pray excuse my apparent irrelevance, my good sir, but I should like to ask you a question in experimental psychology and the association of ideas.

Encyclopedia browser ?
Full browser ?