Assurbanipal


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Assurbanipal

(ä'so͝orbä`nēpäl) or

Ashurbanipal

(ä`sho͝or–), d. 626? B.C., king of ancient Assyria (669–633 B.C.), son and successor of Esar-HaddonEsar-Haddon
, king of ancient Assyria (681–668 B.C.), son of Sennacherib. Immediately upon ascending the throne he had to put down serious revolts and defeat the Chaldaeans. He was successful in both enterprises.
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. The last of the great kings of Assyria, he drove TaharkaTaharka
or Tirhakah
, d. 663 B.C., king of ancient Egypt, last ruler of the XXV dynasty; son of Piankhi. Before he was king, he led the Egyptians against Sennacherib, who disastrously defeated him. Seizing (688 B.C.
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 out of Egypt and firmly established NechoNecho
, fl. 670 B.C., lord of Saïs, Egypt. He was confirmed in his holding after the Assyrian conquest in 670; he was later taken to Nineveh in chains for plotting to revolt but was pardoned and restored. He probably fell opposing (663) the Nubian reconquest under Tanutamon.
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 in power there only to have Necho's son PsamtikPsamtik
, Lat. Psammetichus, d. 609 B.C., king of ancient Egypt, founder of the XXVI dynasty. When his father, Necho, lord of Saïs under the Assyrians, was defeated and killed (663 B.C.
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 revolt in 660 B.C. and wrest Egypt permanently from Assyria. The uprising took place during a campaign by Assurbanipal against the Elamites and Chaldaeans. His brother, in command at Babylon, also headed a serious revolt by the enemies of the king. This insurgence was suppressed, though not without difficulty, and in retaliation, Assurbanipal took Babylon and slaughtered (648 B.C.) many of the inhabitants. He then defeated Elam and sacked Susa; Elamite power disappeared. Under Assurbanipal, Assyria reached the height of sumptuous living. The famous lion-hunt reliefs in the royal palace at Nineveh date from his reign and are among the finest examples of ancient sculpture. Assurbanipal was interested in learning; excavations at Nineveh have uncovered 22,000 clay tablets from his library—the chief sources of knowledge of ancient Mesopotamia. Among the tablets were found copies of the Babylonian flood and creation stories as well as historical and scientific literature. His reign ended the greatness of the empire (although two of his sons ruled briefly after his death), and Assyria succumbed to the Medes and the Persians only a few years later. His great expenditures in wars to preserve the state contributed somewhat to its collapse. Assurbanipal is probably the Asnappar or Osnapper of Ezra 4.10. He is identified with, but only faintly resembles, the SardanapalusSardanapalus
, in the Persica of Ctesias, an Assyrian monarch who lived in great luxury. He was besieged in Nineveh by the Medes for two years, at the end of which time he set fire to his palace and burned himself and his court to death. Byron wrote a tragedy on the theme.
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 of the Greeks.
References in periodicals archive ?
Pre-Alexandrian Mesopotamian "Librarians": Culminating With Their Work at the Great Library of Assurbanipal
Assurbanipal sent out agents to collect tablets throughout his empire, and even to lands outside of his domain, to collect records for his use: "[Assurbanipal orders that] any tablets and ritual text about which I have not written you, and they are suitable for my palace, select (them) and send (them) to me" (Weitmeyer, 1956 p.
Simo Parpola, Letters from Assyrian Scholars to the Kings Esarhaddon and Assurbanipal, Part II: Commentaries and Appendices (Neukirchen-Vluyn: Neukirchener Verlag, 1983), xvii-xx.
Sixty-four objects carry Akkadian inscriptions, including forty-seven with the name of Adad-nerari I Nine alabaster vases have Neo-Assyrian inscriptions, two with the name of Sennacherib, two with that of Assurbanipal, and five with the name of Esarhaddon.
25) In the process of reworking VTE for its own legal and literary purposes, Deuteronomy also subverted its source by replacing Esarhaddon and Assurbanipal with Yahweh as the object of the demand for exclusive loyalty.
hannuma la tadaggalani "You shall neither change nor alter the word of Esarhaddon, king of Assyria, but heed this very Assurbanipal, the great crown prince designate " (27) The injunction takes the form of a double prohibition against any change, using two synonyms in the Akkadian: enu 'to revoke or change', and the D-stem of sanu 'to change' (transitive), 'to alter'.
Borger, Beitrage zum Inschriftenwerk Assurbanipals (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1996), 38, Prism A, iii 37.
The transliterations of the ten new pieces were prepared by Simo Parpola, who also edited twenty of the letters originally assigned to the series' Assurbanipal volume; the authors also credit him with numerous helpful suggestions.
Letters from the king's sons show the crown princes Assurbanipal and Shamashshumukin playing a central role in interrogating witnesses, and collecting and evaluating intelligence in the regions where they were stationed.
The Dialogue Between Assurbanipal and Nabu (SAA 3 13) exhibits an interchange of royal lament and prophetic response.
The importance of Assyrian prophecy in royal lament is also noteworthy, especially considering the interchange between lament and prophetic oracle in the Dialogue Between Assurbanipal and Nabu.
The foundation of the Aramaean settlement at Syene is more difficult to date, but based on information especially from the Papyrus Amherst 63 (the unique Aramaic text in Demotic script) Porten finds their origins to have been Arash/Rash (a land between Babylonia and Elam), as well as southern Syria (Bit Agusi and Hamath), with a migration to Samaria in the days of Assurbanipal before they came to Egypt.