The spatial pattern and reproductive consequences of outbreak defoliation in Quararibea asterolepis
, a tropical tree.
The placoderm fish Asterolepis radiata is represented by almost all skeletal elements of the dermal armour, which are mostly disarticulated, except for several articulated distal segments of the pectoral fin, and one specimen consisting of articulated nuchal and postpineal plates.
Many plates of psammosteids and the antiarch Asterolepis bear traces of pathology, such as bite marks, hollow swellings, oval or round fossulae or an abnormal crest on the external surface of plates that are most probably caused by parasites (Luksevics et al.
Asterolepis radiata is characteristic of the Amata RS and Snetnaya Gora Beds of the Plavinas RS.
striatus (Gross), Tartuosteus giganteus (Gross) and Psammolepis proia Mark-Kurik; the placoderms Actinolepis tuberculata Agassiz, Heterostius ingens Asmuss, Homostius latus Asmuss, Coccosteidae, Asterolepis sp.
The assemblage comprises the psammosteids Pycnosteus palaeformis Preobrazhensky, Tartuosteus giganteus (Gross) and Psammolepis proia Mark-Kurik (Glinskiy 2012); the placoderms Actinolepis tuberculata Agassiz, Heterostius ingens Asmuss, Homostius latus Asmuss, Coccosteidae, Asterolepis sp.
The orbito-nasal area of Asterolepis
ornata, a Middle Devonian placoderm fish.
Other abundant species were Quararibea asterolepis
and figs (Ficus spp.
2011) and the antiarch placoderm Asterolepis ornata, demonstrating head shields with plates tightly connected long after disintegration of the trunk shield (Upeniece 1999).
The sequence of disarticulation of Asterolepis ornata body and associated taphocenoses.
X X X X X Araceae X X X X X Quararibea X * X * asterolepis
These are represented by species of arthrodires Coccosteus, Watsonosteus and Plourdosteus and antiarchs Asterolepis