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Our results suggest that astrocytes actively help control the rhythm of breathing, said Jeffrey C.
The team focused on astrocytes, a type of brain cell that becomes activated in MS and plays several important roles in disease, examining gene expression in astrocytes in different regions.
The infected astrocytes produced more prions and were able to infect neighboring healthy cells, the team found, something scientists had never been able to recreate in the lab before.
Salk Institute researchers have developed a new way to derive astrocytes from stem cells, opening up broad avenues for research into diseases with inflammatory features.
During early gestation, NSCs divide symmetrically to expand their own pool, and then switch to asymmetric divisions to give rise to each cell type: (1) NSCs acquire the potential to differentiate into neurons at mid-gestation, (2) they obtain the gliogenic capacity to generate astrocytes and oligodendrocytes in the late-gestation to perinatal periods.
Astrocytes destroy worn-out brain cells and clean the debris out of brain - in normal situations - helping the brain stay in shape.
Astrocytes are nervous system support cells that contiguously tile the entire CNS.
Inflammatory brain changes appear to develop 20 years before the onset of symptoms in people with some familial forms of Alzheimer's disease, according to a longitudinal analysis of PET imaging biomarkers of astrocyte activation, amyloid-beta accumulation, and glucose metabolism in the brain.
For this study, the team used the tracer molecules PIB, Deprenyl and FDG to study the amount of amyloid plaques, inflammatory changes in the form of astrocyte activation, astrocytes being the most common type of glial (supporting) cell in the brain.
Neuronal maintenance, neurite outgrowth, and repair of the neuronal network are coordinated by resident astrocytes [10-12].
Glia come in three varieties: microglia, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes.
Astrocytes are predominant cell types in the brain  and play a critical role in maintaining synaptic transmission, antioxidant defense, metabolic and ionic homeostasis, and trophic support, as well as protection of neurons .
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- Astrid Anna Emilia Lindgren
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- astrogeodetic leveling
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- Astrocyte-derived trophic factor
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- Astrocytoma Not Otherwise Specified
- astrocytosis cerebri