Mustafa Kemal Atatürk

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Atatürk, Mustafa Kemal


Born 1881, in Salonika; died Nov. 10, 1938, in Istanbul. Founder and first president (1923–38) of the Turkish Republic. The Great Turkish National Assembly gave him the surname Atatürk (literally, father of the Turks) in 1934, when surnames were introduced.

Atatürk was born into the family of a timber merchant, a former customs clerk. He received a secondary military education in Salonika and Monastir (Bitola), and a higher education in Istanbul, where he graduated from the General Staff Academy in January 1905. He participated in the Young Turks movement. However, soon after the Young Turks revolution of 1908, he withdrew from the Committee of Union and Progress. He fought at the front in the Turko-Italian War of 1911–12, in the Second Balkan War in 1913, and in World War I (1914–18). In 1916 he was promoted to the rank of general and received the title of pasha. In 1919 he led a national liberation movement in Anatolia. Under Atatürk’s leadership, a congress of the bourgeois-revolutionary Leagues for the Defense of Rights was held in Erzurum and Sivas in 1919, and on Apr. 23, 1920, the Great Turkish National Assembly was formed in Ankara and declared itself the supreme governing body. As president of the assembly and after September 1921 as supreme commander in chief as well, Atatürk led the armed forces in the national liberation war against the Anglo-Greek intervention. As a result of victory in the battles at the Sakarya River (Aug. 23-Sept. 13, 1921), the assembly conferred on him the rank of marshal and the title of ghazi. Under the command of Atatürk, the Turkish Army defeated the interventionists in 1922.

On Atatürk’s initiative, the sultanate was abolished on Nov. 1, 1922, and on Oct. 29, 1923, Turkey was declared a republic. The caliphate was eliminated on Mar. 3, 1924, and a number of progressive reforms of a bourgeois and national character were introduced in the areas of government and administrative structure, justice, culture, and mode of life. The People’s Party (after 1924, the Republican People’s Party), which Atatürk established in 1923 on the base of the Leagues for the Defense of Rights and of which Atatürk became lifetime chairman, opposed the reactionary attempts of feudal-clerical and comprador circles. In the area of foreign affairs, Atatürk aspired to maintain a friendly relationship between Turkey and Soviet Russia, which had rendered disinterested aid to the Turkish people in the years of their struggle against the imperialists and later during the development of their national economy.


Nutuk, vols. i-3. Istanbul, 1934. (Russian edition: Put’ novoi Turtsii, vols. 1–4. Moscow, 1929–34.)
Atatürk’ ün söylev ve demeçleri, [vols.] 1–3. Ankara, 1945–59. (Russian abridged edition: Izbrannye rechi i vystupleniia.Edited and with an introduction by A. F. Miller. Moscow, 1966.)


References in periodicals archive ?
High-level state officials led by Turkish Parliament Speaker Mehmet Ali Sahin visited the mausoleum of Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, founder of modern Republic of Turkey.
The ambassador said describing Ataturk as an "autocrat", especially during a period when Turkey was considered a source of inspiration against the striking transformations in the Middle East, was a very "unfortunate, ugly and defiant" move.
Tav signed a 15-year, $4bn concession to run Istanbul Ataturk Airport in 2006.
The top of the Government attended to the commemoration ceremony in "Anitkabir", the Ataturk mausoleum in Ankara.
In his remarks, the Prime Minister said, "It is a great honour for me to pay homage to Mustafa Kemal Ataturk -the father of modern Turkey.
The Crown Prince of Abu Dhabi toured the nearby museum which houses all sorts of artifacts and belongings of Ataturk and his life.
In this constellation of ready-made objects, fabricated artworks, and channels of mediation--and the slippages between them--the artists point to the malleability of the Ataturk icon.
The 7th International Ataturk Congress took place in Skopje and Bitola on 18-22 October, for the first time outside the borders of Turkey, in the country in which Ataturk's parents lived and in which he went to school.
The airline will fly thrice a week from its hub in Istanbul, Ataturk Airport, departing on Mondays, Thursdays and Saturdays, said a statement from Turkish Airlines.
Ankara, Oct 11 (ANI): Vice President Mohammad Hamid Ansari has remarked that the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Ataturk was a source of inspiration for India's freedom movement.
As the Ottoman Empire vanished after World War I, Mustafa Kemal Ataturk created a new Turkey in the mold of Europe.
Enigmatic, complex, and visionary, Mustafa Kemal Ataturk was the first president of Turkey (beginning in 1923) and the founder of modern Turkey--the leader of the country as it transitioned from the Ottoman imperial order into a modern state.