Ateliers Nationaux

Ateliers Nationaux

 

(national workshops), public organizations created to provide work for the unemployed in France during the 18th and 19th centuries. The first national workshops were set up 1786; more were organized in 1788 and between 1789 and 1791. They were revived after the February Revolution of 1848.

Quasimilitary in structure, the workshops offered employment in nonproductive capacities. The provisional government during 1848 hoped to alleviate unemployment through national workshops and to use those employed there against the revolutionary workers. When it became clear that these plans could not succeed, it was decided on June 22, 1848, to close some of the national workshops, which at that time employed more than 100, 000 people, and to either mobilize the workers into the army or transport them to the provinces as manual laborers. This decision gave impetus to the June uprising of 1848, which was brutally suppressed. On July 3, 1848, the national workshops were disbanded.

References in periodicals archive ?
Les mesures de gestion des pauvres et des sans-emploi evoluent au cours du 18e siecle, alors que les autorites cherchent plutot a creer de l'emploi par l'intermediaire des ateliers de charite ou encore des ateliers nationaux en France.
On the public works projects of 1830-31, see David Pinkney, "Les Ateliers de secours a Paris (1830-1831): Precurseurs des Ateliers nationaux de 1848," Revue de l'histoire moderne et contemporaine (1965); on the impact of the cholera epidemic, George Sussman, "Carriers of Cholera and Poison Rumours in France in 1832," Societas 3 (1973); on economic downturns, Michel Lescure, Immobilier et batiment en France (1820-1980) (Paris, 1983), 7-26.