The pale and naked shades of Gianni Schicchi and Myrrha are compared to the frenzied figures of Athamas
Images of madmen in chains or as physically overwhelming figures include the frontispiece by Christof LeBlon for Robert Burton's The Anatomy of Melancholy; book illustrations for Jonathan Swift's "Digression on Madness" in A Tale of a Tub and John Fletcher's The Pilgrim; Peter Xavery's sculpture, Two Madmen (1673, Rijks-museum, Amsterdam); Hogarth's "Rake in Bedlam"; Goya's Asylum at Saragossa (1794, Meadows Museum, Dallas), and Goya, The Madhouse (1812-19, Accademia de San Fernando, Madrid); John Flaxman, Fury of Athamas
(1790-93, Ickworth House, Suffolk); and Antonio Canova, Hercules and Lichas (1795-1815, Galleria Nazionale d'Arte Moderna, Rome).
Juno prevails on Tisiphone to drive Ino and Athamas
mad, and Ino throws herself and her child over a cliff-top into the sea.
The apocalyptic "strife of blood" (E 66; E 15: 11) predicted in the verbal text's final lines is counterpointed in the final visual image, which recalls The Fury of Athamas
(1794) by Blake's friend the sculptor John Flaxman (Behrendt, "Europe").
In days past a Greek king called Athamas
banished his wife and took another, a beautiful but wicked woman who persuaded Athamus to kill his own children; but a golden ram swooped down from the skies and carried the children away.
, a son of Aeolus and ruler of Boeotia, married the phantom Nephele (see Ixion ), who bore him a son, Phrixus, and a daughter, Helle.
eyes; the Pan-lashed Athamas
seeing his son Learchus as a stag and his
According to the legend, Jason's uncle Athamas
had two children, Phrixus and Helle, by his first wife, Nephele.
Anita Krause deployed her ample mezzo ably enough in both her roles, but expressed Ino's longing for Athamas
more persuasively than the betrayed Juno's cosmic fury (Krause sounded merely vexed).
Travelling effortlessly between Athamas
and Ino, Atreus and Aerope (Salt.
It was a shame to cut Athamas
's show-stopping final aria with a mellifluous countertenor like Canadian Matthew White on hand, but a rejoicing Athamas
would not have fit Lawless's concept.