Atjeh


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Atjeh

 

a sultanate in the northern part of the island of Sumatra (Indonesia). Existed from the early 16th century to the early 20th century. One of the centers of diffusion of Islam in Indonesia.

The golden age of Atjeh came in the first half of the 17th century, when its sovereignty was recognized by most of the principalities of Sumatra and the western principalities of Malaya. It specialized in the pepper trade and had a powerful fleet. In the 16th and early 17th centuries, Atjeh fought successfully against the Portuguese. Atjeh’s importance declined after the capture of Malacca in 1641 by the Dutch, who also penetrated Atjeh’s vassal holdings. From 1873 to 1904 the Netherlands waged a colonial war against Atjeh. The people of Atjeh, under the leadership of Teku Umar, Tengku Tjhik di-Tiro, and others, heroically resisted the invaders. Partisan activities continued until 1913. Since 1956, Atjeh has been a province in the Republic of Indonesia.

REFERENCES

Snouck Hurgronje, C. The Achehnese, vols. 1–2. Leiden, 1906.
Said, Mohammad. Atjeh sepandjang abad. Medan, 1961.

V. A. TIURIN

References in periodicals archive ?
The Contest for North Sumatera Atjeh, the Netherlands and Britain 1858-1898.
Boxer, 'A Note on Portuguese Reactions to the Revival of the Red Sea Spice Trade and the Rise of Atjeh, 1540-1600', Journal of Southeast Asian History, 10 (1969), 415-28 (pp.
Other articles treat such diverse topics as shifting drug policies in the Netherlands, the Dutch East Indies Red Cross and its treatment of native inhabitants during the first Atjeh expeditions, and the unique qualities of military psychiatry in the modern era.