atomic force microscope

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atomic force microscope

(AFM), device that uses a spring-mounted probe to image individual atoms on the surface of a material, first developed by Gerd BinnigBinnig, Gerd
, 1947–, German physicist, Ph.D. Univ. of Frankfurt, 1978. At the IBM Research Laboratory in Zürich, Binnig and fellow researcher Heinrich Rohrer built the first scanning tunneling microscope, an instrument so sensitive that it can distinguish individual
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 in 1986. Unlike the scanning tunneling microscopescanning tunneling microscope
(STM), device for studying and imaging individual atoms on the surfaces of materials. The instrument was invented in the early 1980s by Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer, who were awarded the 1986 Nobel prize in physics for their work.
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, which is also a scanning probe microscope, the AFM can be used on materials that do not conduct electricity. In the original AFM, the probe traverses the surface, moving upward due to bumps and downward due to depressions; a laserlaser
[acronym for light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation], device for the creation, amplification, and transmission of a narrow, intense beam of coherent light. The laser is sometimes referred to as an optical maser.
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 beam reflected from the tip of the probe measures the up and down movements, and the pattern of reflected light creates an image of the surface. Another type of AFM measures the sideways deflection of the tip caused by friction as the probe moves across the surface; differences in friction can be used distinguish different atoms and molecules on the material. A third variation employs a magnetic probe; this probe does not touch the material but moves up and down in reaction to the magnetic forces between the tip and the surface. In a microchip-size AFM, the electronic circuitry and multiple probes are integrated on a sliver of silicon; although less sensitive than a full-size AFM, the device has applications in microelectronicsmicroelectronics,
branch of electronic technology devoted to the design and development of extremely small electronic devices that consume very little electric power. Although the term is sometimes used to describe discrete electronic components assembled in an extremely small
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 where the multiple probes make it possible to record images very quickly.

atomic force microscope

[ə¦täm·ik ¦fȯrs ′mī¦krə‚skōp]
(engineering)
A device for mapping surface atomic structure by measuring the force acting on the tip of a sharply pointed wire or other object that is moved over the surface.
References in periodicals archive ?
With its 1986 invention, atomic force microscopy (AFM) is one of the newest members in the microscopy family with impressive atomic-scale resolution.
The effect of fluid properties and geometrical parameters of cantilever on the frequency response of atomic force microscopy, Precision Engineering 38(2): 321-329.
Atomic force microscopy is a powerful characterization tool with many applications to coatings.
Investigation of growth modes of cadmium mercury thiocyanate crystal by atomic force microscopy.
Atomic force microscopy (AFM) offers higher resolution in analyzing the spatial arrangement of coating components.
The cytochrome P450 monolayers were examined by optical microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy, and Atomic Force Microscopy to verify the molecular arrangements and to validate this technology.
Scanning electron and atomic force microscopy was used for the first time to view the maturation of the severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus at the cell surface.
Use of a highly plastic material such as aluminum, for which the projected area should be similar to the contact area, A, at maximum force, can be combined with high resolution imaging techniques, such as electron microscopy or atomic force microscopy (AFM) to determine [C.
The system combines a hermetically sealed sample chamber with modular environmental controls to provide atomic force microscopy scanning under nonambient vacuum, gas, and liquid environments.
Carbon nanotube atomic force microscopy tips: direct growth by chemical vapor deposition and application to high-resolution imaging.
Atomic Force Microscopy - a new technology for the study of a wide range of surfaces and their properties with a subnanometer resolution.