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Attila(ətĭl`ə, ăt`ələ), d. 453, king of the HunsHuns,
nomadic and pastoral people of unknown ethnological affinities who appeared in Europe in the 4th cent. A.D., and built up an empire there. They were organized in a predominantly military manner.
..... Click the link for more information. (445–53). After 434 he was coruler with his brother, whom he murdered in 445. In 434, Attila obtained tribute and great concessions for the Huns in a treaty with the Eastern Roman emperor Theodosius II, but, taking advantage of Roman wars with the Vandals and Persians, he invaded the Balkans in 441. Peace was made, and Attila's tribute was tripled. In 447 he again attacked the empire and spent the following three years negotiating a new peace. In 450, however, the new Eastern emperor, MarcianMarcian
, 396–457, Roman emperor of the East (450–57); successor of Theodosius II, whose sister Pulcheria he married in 450. Orthodox in religious affairs, he convoked (451) the Council of Chalcedon (see Chalcedon, Council of).
..... Click the link for more information. , refused to render further tribute as did Valentinian IIIValentinian III,
419–55, Roman emperor of the West (425–55). Two years after the death of his uncle, Honorius, he was placed on the throne by his cousin Theodosius II, who deposed the usurper John.
..... Click the link for more information. , emperor of the West. In a bid for power, and without her brother's knowledge, Valentinian's ambitious sister, Honoria, jeopardized his peaceful relations with Attila by attempting an alliance with the Hun. Attila took her proposal as a marriage offer and demanded half of the Western Empire as a dowry, a demand that was refused. Leaving Hungary with an army of perhaps half a million Huns and allies, Attila invaded Gaul but was defeated (451) by AetiusAetius,
c.396–454, Roman general. At first unfriendly to Valentinian III, he later made his peace with Valentinian's mother, Galla Placidia, and was given a command in Gaul.
..... Click the link for more information. at Maurica. Attila turned back and invaded (452) N Italy but abandoned his plan to take Rome itself. His withdrawal, often ascribed to the eloquent diplomacy of Pope Leo ILeo I, Saint
(Saint Leo the Great), c.400–461, pope (440–61), an Italian; successor of St. Sixtus III. A Doctor of the Church, he was one of the greatest pontiffs of the early years of the church. He waged a firm campaign against schism and heresy.
..... Click the link for more information. , appears to have been motivated by a shortage of provisions and the outbreak of pestilence. Soon afterward in Hungary, Attila died of a nasal hemorrhage suffered while celebrating his marriage to Ildico. The fear Attila inspired is clear from many accounts of his savagery, but, though undoubtedly harsh, he was a just ruler to his own people. He encouraged the presence of learned Romans at his court and was far less bent on devastation than other conquerors. Often called the Scourge of God, he appears in many legends, particularly as Etzel in the Nibelungenlied (see under NibelungenNibelungen
in Germanic myth and literature, an evil family possessing a magic hoard of gold. The hoard is accursed. The Nibelungenlied [song of the Nibelungen] is a long Middle High German epic by a south German poet of the early 13th cent.
..... Click the link for more information. ).
See C. D. Gordon, The Age of Attila (1960); O. Maenchen-Helfen, The World of the Huns (1973).
Attila(religion, spiritualism, and occult)
Attila, asteroid 1489 (the 1,489th asteroid to be discovered, on April 12, 1939), is approximately 15 kilometers in diameter and has an orbital period of 5.7 years. Attila was named after the West’s most famous barbarian, Attila the Hun. J. Lee Lehman associates this asteroid with power and dominance issues. Attila, she says, “signifies the fighter. The Attila type does not retire gracefully.” Jacob Schwartz gives the astrological significance of this asteroid as “active dominance to get what one wants even fighting when it is unnecessary.”
code name for the plan of the fascist German command for the preventative seizure of the so-called unoccupied zone of France. Operation Attila was designed to meet the contingency of the loss of control by the French Vichy government over its North African possessions; the objective of the operation was to prevent the transfer of the French naval fleet in the Mediterranean and of the French air force to the side of the English and Americans or to a separatist French military administration in North Africa. As a result of Hitler’s Directive Number 19 of Dec. 10, 1940, Operation Attila, the fascist German command undertook the necessary preparatory measures. Plan Attila was replaced in May 1942 by Plan Anton, which, in contrast to Attila, stipulated the participation of the Italian armed forces in the occupation. In accordance with this plan, German and Italian troops occupied the entire territory of France, including the island of Corsica, on Nov. 11–12, 1942.