August Petermann

Petermann, August

 

Born Apr. 18, 1822, in Bleicherode; died Sept. 25, 1878, in Gotha. German cartographer and geographer.

Petermann received his Ph.D. degree in 1854. In 1855 in Gotha he founded and became the editor of Mitteilungen aus Justus Perthes’ Geographischer Anstalt, which became a leading journal of geography and cartography; it is published today in Gotha (German Democratic Republic) under the name Peter-manns Geographische Mitteilungen and is edited by Professor Ernst Neef. Petermann edited 24 annual issues of the journal and 56 supplementary issues. He helped compile many important cartographic works, including the atlases and maps in Peter-manns Geographische Mitteilungen. He organized expeditions to Africa, including one to Central Africa from 1849 to 1864 and one to the eastern Sudan and the middle Nile region from 1860 to 1863. A number of arctic expeditions between 1868 and 1874 were organized by Petermann, including those to Spitsbergen in 1868, the eastern coast of Greenland in 1869 and 1870, and Franz Josef Land in 1872 and 1874 (with J. von Payer).

Petermann hypothesized a “warm” North Polar Sea and the existence of land in the central arctic dividing the Arctic Ocean in two. In 1874, Payer sighted land to the north of Franz Josef Land and entered it on the map as Petermann Land, but no such land was found during the drift of the Russian ship Sv. Anna from 1912 to 1914 or by the group headed by the ship’s navigator, V. I. Al’banov. A mountain range in Australia and a mountain peak and a glacier in Greenland are named after Petermann.

References in periodicals archive ?
Hypothesis versus fact: August Petermann and polar research.
Beau Riffenburgh quotes the 19th-century German geographer August Petermann in the introduction to his book before illustrating the comment's truth with a panoramic view of the history of cartography.
DeBow's 1854 report of the census had circulated internationally, giving German cartographer August Petermann the opportunity to translate this mountain of data into visual language.
The book takes its title from August Petermann, the Thuringen-born cartographer who moved to Edinburgh in 1845, and then to London, where he founded a lithography institute that produced maps for the Royal Geographical Society at a time when Africa was being colonised.
One such conception was the view of the physical geography of polar areas put forward in 1865 by the German geographer and publicist August Petermann, which was based mainly on the findings of English and Russian polar explorers.
Key words: August Petermann, history, exploration, Arctic Ocean, open polar sea, Gulf Stream, extension of Greenland, Ostrov Vrangelya (Wrangel Island)
Une de ces conceptions, remontant a 1865, concernait la geographie physique des regions polaires telle que la voyait le geographe et publiciste allemand August Petermann, qui s'appuyait surtout sur les travaux d'explorateurs polaires anglais et russes.
Mots cles: August Petermann, histoire, exploration, ocean Arctique, mer polaire ouverte, Gulf Stream, extension du Groenland, Ostrov Vrangelya (ile Wrangell)
The German publicist and geographer August Petermann (1822-1878) delineated his view of the physical geography of the Arctic Ocean on the map entitled Karte der arktischen und antarktischen Regionen zur Ubersicht des geographischen Standpunktes im J.
The adopted son of the noted German cartographer Heinrich Berghaus (1797-1884), August Petermann of Gotha began to take an interest in the geography of polar regions during his stay in England in the 1850s (Petermann, 1852, 1853).
Hypotheses Versus Fact: August Petermann and Polar Research.