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Related to Aurangzeb: Shah Jahan


(ôr`əngzĕb') or


(–zĭb'), 1618–1707, MughalMughal
or Mogul
, Muslim empire in India, 1526–1857. The dynasty was founded by Babur, a Turkic chieftain who had his base in Afghanistan. Babur's invasion of India culminated in the battle of Panipat (1526) and the occupation of Delhi and Agra.
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 emperor of India (1658–1707), son and successor of Shah JahanShah Jahan
or Shah Jehan
, 1592–1666, Mughal emperor of India (1628–58), son and successor of Jahangir. His full name was Khurram Shihab-ud-din Muhammad. He rebelled against his father in 1622 but was pardoned and succeeded to the throne in 1628.
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. He served (1636–44, 1653–58) as viceroy of the Deccan but was constantly at odds with his father and his eldest brother, Dara Shikoh, the heir apparent. When Shah Jahan fell ill in 1658, Aurangzeb seized the opportunity to fight and defeat Dara and two other brothers in a battle for succession. He imprisoned his father for life and ascended the throne at Agra with the reign title Alamgir [world-shaker]. A scholarly, austere man, devoted to Islam, he persecuted the Hindus, destroying their temples and monuments. He executed the guru of the Sikhs (see SikhismSikhism
, religion centered in the Indian state of Punjab, numbering worldwide some 19 million. Some 300,000 Sikhs live in Britain, and there are smaller communities in North America, Australia, and Singapore.
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) when he refused to embrace Islam. Although the Mughal empire reached its greatest extent under Aurangzeb, it was also fatally weakened by revolts of the Sikhs, Rajputs, and Jats in the north and the rebellion of the Marathas in the Deccan. From 1682, Aurangzeb concentrated all his energies on crushing the Marathas, but his costly campaigns were only temporarily successful and further weakened his authority in the north. The Mughal empire fell apart soon after his death.


See biographies by Sir Jadunath Sarkar (5 vol., 1912–24) and M. Lal (1988); studies by S. Lane-Poole (1964) and R. C. Hallissey (1977).



Born 1618; died 1707. Last true ruler of the Mogul Empire (1658–1707). Son of Shah Jahan.

Aurangzeb was vicegerent of the Deccan from 1636 to 1644 and 1652 to 1657. In the war for the throne among the four sons of Shah Jahan (1658–59), Aurangzeb was victorious less because of his military superiority than because of intrigue, bribery, and deceit. He killed all the other claimants to the throne and put his father under house arrest.

Aurangzeb waged wars to seize Kandahar and Balkh in the north and Ahmadnahar, Bijapur, and Golconda in the Deccan. To pay for these costly wars, Aurangzeb increased taxes and renewed the jizya. Carrying out a policy of Muslim intolerance, he destroyed Hindu temples, confiscated the property of Hindu merchants, and annexed the lands of Hindu feudal lords. This provoked a Maratha uprising throughout the country, led by Sivaji, the Jats, the Rajput princes, and the Sikhs. The disintegration of the empire was accelerated by Aurangzeb’s harsh religious intolerance. At the end of Aurangzeb’s life, his sons rebelled against him. Under Aurangzeb, European trading companies became stronger in India.


Bernier, F. Istoriia poslednikh politicheskikh perevorotov v gosudarstve Velikogo Mogola. Moscow-Leningrad, 1936. (Translated from French.)
Sarkar, J. The History of Aurangzib[2nd-3rd ed.], vols. 1–6. Calcutta, 1924–28.


References in periodicals archive ?
What happened inside the Senate was seen by everyone,' said Aurangzeb while addressing media outside the Election Commission of Pakistan.
Talking to media outside the Parliament House, Tahira Aurangzeb said that the voters will cast votes in the next general elections on basis of their affiliation and ideology with political parties.
Marriyum Aurangzeb said Punjab government introduced forensic labs and the other provinces are also getting benefit from these labs.
Ms Aurangzeb said she would first suggest a provincial-level helpline, which would make it possible to respond immediately to complaints.
Speaking on the occasion, Marriyum Aurangzeb said that women accounted for fifty percent of our total population and it was very important to give them more space in national life for better development of the country.
Speaking as the chief guest, Marriyum Aurangzeb said that women accounted for fifty percent of total population of Pakistan and it was very important to give them more space in national the life for the better development of the country.
Broadcasting and National Heritage, Minister of State for Information, Marriyam Aurangzeb speaking at the inauguration of the first ever National Artists Convention said that terrorism has not only martyred our soldiers and citizens but also killed our art and culture.
Nawaz Sharif will re-elect new chief of the party", Aurangzeb said while adding, "Nawaz Sharif was and will remain party head".
Aiyar had reportedly referred to Aurangzeb when he was asked about rebel Congress member from Maharashtra Shehzad Poonawalla who has been alleging that the election within the party was "rigged".
Ghazi Aurangzeb is set to tee it up with the stars of the European Tour at this year's DP World Tour Championship Rolex Pro-Am after being crowned the winner of the 2017 Luckiest Ball on Earth Series at the Grand Final held on Fire course at Jumeirah Golf Estates on Sunday 22 October.
Islamabad: Minister of State for Information, Broadcasting and National Heritage Marriyum Aurangzeb has severely castigated Imran Khan for hurling allegations of corruption against Punjab's chief minister, Shehbaz Sharif, in a case pertaining to a Chinese company.
KARACHI -- Minister of State for Information Maryam Aurangzeb has said that Hussian Nawaz appeared before the JIT probing Panama case on a very short 24-hour notice.