Aurobindo Ghose


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Ghose, Aurobindo

(ôrōbĭn`dō gōsh), 1872–1950, Indian nationalist leader and mystic philosopher. Born in Bengal, he was sent to England and lived there for 14 years, completing his education at Cambridge. Returning to India in 1893, he plunged into the study of Indian languages and culture. The agitation against the partition (1905) of Bengal drew him into the nationalist movement, and for several years he acted as leader of a secret revolutionary organization, becoming well known through his eloquent patriotic writings. He was eventually jailed for subverting British rule and while in prison experienced visions that completely altered his outlook. On release from prison he announced his withdrawal from active political life and retired to Pondicherry (now Puducherry) in S India where he devoted himself to the practice of yoga and to writing. In his major works, all written in English, he formulates the metaphysics and system of spiritual discipline that he called Integral Yoga (Purna Yoga). Rejecting the traditional ideal of world-renunciation and negation of physical existence, he based his philosophy on the principle of the descent of divine force and consciousness into both the individual and the universal processes of nature and history. He described evolution as the effect of progressively higher forces, of which the highest is the "supramental" force that initiates man's final transformation into a state of perfection. In 1926, Sri Aurobindo, as he came to be called, retired into seclusion. He put in charge of his disciples his spiritual consort (ShaktiShakti
[Skt.,=power], in Hinduism, name given to the female consorts of male deities. The Shakti personifies the dynamic, manifesting energy that creates the universe, while the male god represents the static, unmanifest aspect of the divine reality.
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), Mira Richard (1878–1973), a French-born woman of Egyptian descent who had joined him in Pondicherry in 1914. His seclusion marked the official establishment of his spiritual community, or ashram. The ashram, the largest in India, remains active. In 1968 construction was begun for a utopian city called Auroville to function on the principles of Aurobindo's philosophy. His writings include The Life Divine (1949), The Synthesis of Yoga (1948), and Essays on the Gita (1921–28, repr. 1950).

Bibliography

See S. Mitra, The Liberator Sri Aurobindo, India, and the World (1970); B. Bruteau, Worthy is the World (1971); K. Gandhi, ed., Contemporary Relevance of Sri Aurobindo (1973); R. A. McDermott, ed., The Essential Aurobindo (1973).

References in periodicals archive ?
He was granted permission to photograph the Ashram and this eventually resulted in an album, featuring both Sri Aurobindo Ghose and his French companion Mirra Alfassa, often referred to as The Mother.
Another figure quoted by Mishra, Indian nationalist Aurobindo Ghose (1872-1950), pointed out how British Christian empire-builders covered their depredations in India with a 'cloak of virtue, benevolence and unselfish altruism'.
The concluding section contains 8 chapters on the writings and philosophy of key thinkers in peace including Ghandi, Ghaffar Khan, Aurobindo Ghose, Raimon Panikkar, and Gregory Bateson.
Wadis, Aurobindo Ghose, Mohandas Gandhi, among many others (including the British suffrage leaders, the Pethiek-Lawrenees and the Pankhursts).
Robert Minor examines Sri Aurobindo Ghose, a leader in the extremist wing of the Indian nationalist movement and a famous yoga teacher.
The first tells of the collaboration from 1902 until 1910 between Irish-born Margaret Noble, who became, as Sister Nivedita, a Bengali activist, and Aurobindo Ghose, a Cambridge-educated Bengali who was for a while actively engaged in nationalist politics: 'It was surely not coincidental that the development of campaigns based on boycott and swadeshi (the locally made) occurred in Bengal not long after the onset in Ireland of the Celtic Revival' (p.
He examines the work of Abraham Heschel (Jewish), Karl Barth (Christian), Mohammed Iqbal (Muslim), and Aurobindo Ghose (Hindu), as among the most respected 20th-century thinkers in their own traditions.
Psychologist and composer Salmon and consultant Maslow received a grant from the Infinity Foundation to write this synthesis of the Indian yogic tradition based on the teachings of Indian philosopher Sri Aurobindo Ghose.
Pal and Aurobindo Ghose, and westerners like Tolstoy, Ruskin, and Thoreau, whose ideas contributed to his intellectual development.