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see OświęcimOświęcim
, Ger. Auschwitz, town (1992 est. pop. 45,100), Małopolskie prov., SE Poland. It is a railway junction and industrial center producing chemicals, leather, and agricultural implements. There are coal deposits in the vicinity.
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, Poland.



a concentration camp built by the fascist German regime on occupied Polish territory near the town whose German name is Auschwitz (Polish name, Oświe̢cim), near Kraków. Construction of the camp, which covered an area of approximately 500 hectares, began in 1940. It was a vast complex for the extermination of human beings, utilizing the most up-to-date technology. During the camp’s existence, more than 4 million people were exterminated—citizens of the USSR, Poland, France, Belgium, Hungary, the Netherlands, Rumania, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, and other countries.

In spite of the savage terror in the camp, a network of underground cells and combat groups was organized by Communists. In the fall of 1944, the central leadership of the organized resistance in the camp made preparations for an armed uprising. Several groups of prisoners went into action spontaneously before the appointed time, however, and the uprising was suppressed. More than 200 people died bearing arms. The Hitlerites dealt savagely with the remaining prisoners. On Jan. 27, 1945, Soviet troops liberated the few remaining survivors of Auschwitz.

A museum has been established at the site of the camp. In September 1958 the International Auschwitz Committee was organized.


Niurnbergskii protsess, vol. 4. Moscow, 1959. Pages 295–557.
Kraus, O., and E. Kulka. Fabrika smerti. Moscow, 1960. (Translated from Czech.)



largest Nazi extermination camp; more than 1,000,000 deaths there. [Ger. Hist.: Hitler, 958–959, 970, 1123]


an industrial town in S Poland; site of a Nazi concentration camp during World War II. Pop.: 45 400 (latest est.)
References in periodicals archive ?
Lessons from Auschwitz wishes for these trips to inspire the pupils and change the way people think about the terrifying ordeal that was the Holocaust, not about the numbers, but about the people involved, what their background was and who they were.
German courts are also waiting for medical clearance before trying 93-year-old former Auschwitz guard Reinhold Hanning on 170,000 counts of accessory to murder.
I was in Auschwitz as part of the Holocaust Educational Trust, where teachers and students are invited on a one-day visit to Poland.
Former SS sergeant and Auschwitz death camp worker Oskar Groening listens to the verdict at his trial
In September 1940, Captain Witold Pilecki, a Polish Army officer, volunteered for an almost certainly suicidal secret undercover mission: to get himself arrested and sent to Auschwitz as a prisoner, with the goal of smuggling out intelligence and building a resistance organization among the prisoners.
5 million people, mainly European Jews, were gassed, shot, hanged or burned at Auschwitz during the war.
Auschwitz played a leading role in the Holocaust where six million Jews and ve million Slavs, Gypsies, homosexuals, disabled people and political enemies were massacred by Hitler's genocidal regime.
The Auschwitz museum holds more than 100,000 pairs of shoes, 12,000 kitchen utensils, 3,800 suitcases and 350 striped camp garments.
Taking it even a step further, Anita's son Raphael Wallfisch, himself a celebrated solo cellist, also agreed to play on the film score, involving three generations of a family that survived Auschwitz.
The atrocities of Auschwitz must not be forgotten, the retired dockworker says as he holds a ring given to him by a prisoner who never made it home.
A RE easy or upbeat but A Brief Stop On The Auschwitz, by Goran handled more delicately and sensitively because the POW in question is the author's own father, Using personal photos, letters and other documents, the Swedish writer delves into his Jewish roots and retraces his dad's journey from the Lodz Ghetto in Poland through to the brutal Auschwitz-Birkenau, where he is separated from his beloved Halinka (Hala) and his family.