Austro-Prussian War


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Austro-Prussian War

or

Seven Weeks War,

June 15–Aug. 23, 1866, between Prussia, allied with Italy, and Austria, seconded by Bavaria, Württemberg, Saxony, Hanover, Baden, and several smaller German states. It was deliberately provoked by BismarckBismarck, Otto von
, 1815–98, German statesman, known as the Iron Chancellor. Early Life and Career

Born of an old Brandenburg Junker family, he studied at Göttingen and Berlin, and after holding minor judicial and administrative offices he was elected
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, over the objections of his king, in order to expel Austria from the German ConfederationGerman Confederation,
1815–66, union of German states provided for at the Congress of Vienna to replace the old Holy Roman Empire, which had been destroyed during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars. It comprised 39 states in all, 35 monarchies and 4 free cities.
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 as a step toward the unification of Germany under Prussian dominance. The pretext for precipitating the conflict was found in the dispute between Prussia and Austria over the administration of Schleswig-HolsteinSchleswig-Holstein
, state (1994 pop. 2,595,000), c.6,050 sq mi (15,670 sq km), NW Germany. Kiel (the capital and chief port), Lübeck, Flensburg, and Neumünster are the major cities.
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. When Austria brought the dispute before the German diet and also decided to convene the Holstein diet, Prussia, declaring that the Gastein Convention (see under GasteinGastein
, valley, Salzburg prov., central Austria, in the N Hohe Tauern range. A popular and beautiful resort area, it has hot radioactive springs. Badgastein, one of the most fashionable spas in Europe, and Bad Hofgastein, also a resort, are found there.
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) had thereby been nullified, invaded Holstein. When the German diet responded by voting for a partial mobilization against Prussia, Bismarck declared that the German Confederation was ended. With an efficient military machine that amazed Europe, Prussia overran the German states allied with Austria and crushed (July 3) the Austrians at Sadová (or Sadowa; also known as the battle of Königgrätz), in E Bohemia. However, Bismarck had no intention of weakening Austria, a potential ally, more than necessary. The preliminary treaty of Nikolsburg (July 26) was followed (Aug. 23) by the Treaty of Prague. Against Italy, the Austrians had won victories on the land, at Custozza, and on the sea, at Lissa. Nevertheless, the peace treaty forced Austria to cede Venetia to Italy. Prussia, satisfied with the exclusion, acknowledged in the treaty, of Austria from German affairs, demanded no territory from Austria, but annexed Hanover, Hesse, Nassau, and Frankfurt, in addition to Schleswig-Holstein. The German Confederation was replaced by the Prussian-led North German ConfederationNorth German Confederation,
1867–71, alliance of 22 German states N of the Main River. Dominated by Prussia, it replaced the German Confederation and included the states that had supported Prussia in the Austro-Prussian War (1866).
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. Thus the war paved the way for the establishment (1871) of the German Empire and the reorientation of Austria (reorganized in 1867 as the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy) toward the east. The moderate peace terms facilitated the Austro-German alliance of 1879.

Bibliography

See H. Friedjung, The Struggle for Supremacy in Germany, 1859–1866 (10th ed. abr., tr. 1935, repr. 1966); G. A. Craig, The Battle of Königgrätz (1964); E. A. Pottinger, Napoleon III and the German Crisis, 1865–66 (1966).

References in periodicals archive ?
This led to the outbreak of the Austro-Prussian War (a.
The participants in the Austro-Prussian War of 1866 nearly created a precedent in practice for Marcy's suggestion.
The wars of German unification (The First War of Schleswig in 1848-51, the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, The Franco-Prussian War of 1870).
Then, as outlined to Disraeli, he turned a disagreement with Austria over the occupation of the duchies into a cause for war, resulting in the Austro-Prussian War of 1866: Thanks to Prussia's superior ability to concentrate its forces, the Austrians were beaten in six weeks and their hegemony ended.
The road to Koniggratz; Helmuth von Moltke and the Austro-Prussian War 1866.
The British stayed out of the Franco-Russian war when Napoleon got defeated after reaching Moscow, a great and bloody war beautifully documented in Tolstoy's "War and Peace", and both the British and the French stayed out of the Austro-Prussian war.
The only diplomatic example is of Bismarck's maneuvering before the Austro-Prussian War (used inappropriately to illustrate the value of attacking the enemy's alliance).
Following the successful conclusion of this affray he boarded a steamer for Austria where he continued to fight against pro-Maximillian forces in the Austro-Prussian War.
Thomas University) have confined themselves to the topic fairly strictly, so that events that had an important bearing on German unity, but which took place prior to 1871, such as the Franco-Prussian war, the Austro-Prussian war, the Zollverein, or, more distant, Frederick the Great, do not have separate entries, but are mentioned in passing.
As a result of their defeat in the Austro-Prussian War of 1866 ("Seven Weeks War"), the Hapsburgs were forced to accept Prussia as the leader of the German states of central Europe.
Here, Clark's account can profitably be supplemented with Geoffrey Wawro's two brilliant books, The Austro-Prussian War (Cambridge University Press, 1996) and The Franco-Prussian War (Cambridge, 2003).
Of all the works by Menzel offered in this catalogue, one group in particular was the most moving to me: his pencil and watercolour studies of the dead and dying in the Austro-Prussian war of 1866.