Austria-Hungary

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Austria-Hungary

 

(or Austro-Hungarian Monarchy), the dual state created in 1867 as a result of the reorganization of the Austrian Empire (the Hapsburg Monarchy) on the basis of an agreement between the ruling classes of Austria and Hungary. The agreement, the so-called Austro-Hungarian Compromise of Feb. 8, 1867, was concluded in the midst of a political crisis in the empire, aggravated by its defeat in the war with Prussia (Seven Weeks’ War of 1866). It represented a concession by the ruling circles of Austria to the landowners of Hungary.

The Hapsburg Monarchy was divided into two parts along the Leitha River. The first part was the Austrian Empire (“the kingdoms and lands represented in the Reichsrat”), or Cisleithania, comprising Austria proper and a number of primarily Slavic areas—Bohemia, Moravia, Silesia, Istria, Dalmatia, Bukovina, Carniola, Glicia, and others. The second part was the Kingdom of Hungary (“the territories of the Hungarian Crown”), or Transleithania, comprising Hungary proper, Slovakia, Croatia, Transylvania, and other areas. Like Austria, Hungary was recognized as a sovereign part of the state.

At the head of the dual Austro-Hungarian Monarchy stood the emperor of Austria, also the king of Hungary, whose powers were formally limited by the Austrian Reichsrat and by the Hungarian Diet. Three joint ministries—the ministries of foreign affairs, the armed forces, and finance—were set up for all of Austria-Hungary, but the last two also existed in the two component parts of the monarchy. The other ministries were autonomous for Austria and Hungary. Joint expenditures were divided proportionally between the two parts of Austria-Hungary, were regulated by an agreement between the Reichsrat and the Diet, and were the subject of constant strife. Austria-Hungary possessed no joint constitution. Legislative power for the empire as a whole was exercised by the so-called Delegations, consisting of 60 members from the Reichsrat and 60 from the Diet, that convened annually.

In establishing the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, the Hapsburgs sought to make use of the union between the large Hungarian landowners and the Austrian bourgeoisie to suppress the national liberation and democratic movements within the country, to eliminate the danger of a complete break with Hungary, and to reach a compromise with the Austrian bourgeoisie by granting it certain constitutional rights. The Austro-Hungarian Agreement of 1867 was the cornerstone of the Hapsburg Monarchy’s national policy at the turn of the 20th century. Relying for support on the ruling classes of Austria and Hungary proper, the government of Francis Joseph oppressed the other, primarily Slavic, peoples that inhabited the multinational Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. Defeated in World War I and faced with an upsurge of the working class and national liberation movements that were gathering momentum under the influence of the October Revolution in Russia, Austria-Hungary fell apart at the end of 1918. The bourgeois states of Austria, Hungary, and Czechoslovakia were created from its territory. Part of the territory went to Yugoslavia, Rumania, and Poland.

References in periodicals archive ?
In contrast, some innovations were introduced more rapidly as a result of historical shocks, for example Napoleon's codification of civil law, the "constitutionalisation" of Europe and fiscal centralisation after the Napoleonic Wars, as well as modernisation in Russia and Austro-Hungary due to fear of external threats.
The friendly match was due to be played in Belgrade on August 29th, at a very delicate political moment, when Serbia and Austro-Hungary were in the middle of a diplomatic confrontation because of the situation in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
I have to admit that I myself thought that a book about family life in Austro-Hungary from 1859 to 1914 would probably be pretty dull.
In that sense, the Polish people have never been conquered, not even when their lands were chopped up three ways and distributed to three empires--Germany, Austro-Hungary, and Russia.
After Napoleon, the ancien regimes of France, Prussia, and Austro-Hungary did reluctantly liberalize under the pressure of a growing middle class.
People in this turbulent country are now re-examining their history, particulary the famous historical moment, the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, by a Serb student, Gavrilo Princip, on 28th June 1914, which led to Austro-Hungary declaring war against Serbia.
When war broke out in the summer of 1914, Britain could call upon its command of the seas, the empires of Russia and Austro-Hungary, their vast surpluses of agricultural resources.
Blassie was born February 8, 1918, to German-speaking immigrants from Austro-Hungary in rough and tumble south St.
The surrender of Bulgaria at the end of September and then the surrender of Turkey at the end of October were preceded by the unconditioned surrenders of Austro-Hungary and Germany.
The EU includes independent countries who were part of the USSR, Yugoslavia and Austro-Hungary, so why not independent countries who were once part of the British state, Belgium or Spain?
THE English Arts And Crafts Movement And Transylvania sounds an intriguing exhibition and features paintings by Marianne Stokes, who was born in Austro-Hungary in 1855, and her English husband Adrian Stokes, at Court Barn Museum in Chipping Campden, until August 29.
Media investor Karl Habsburg-Lothringen headed the dynasty of the Habsburgs after the demise of his father Otto Habsburg-Lothringen, a direct heir to the last emperor of Austro-Hungary Karl Franz Joseph.