Averroism

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Averroism

 

a trend in medieval philosophy founded by the 12th-century Arab philosopher ibn-Rushd (Aver-roës). Averroism developed the materialistic tendencies of ibn-Rushd’s interpretation of Aristotle—the idea of the eternity and, consequently, the absence of creation of the world, the mortality of the soul, and the theory of double truth—separating and even opposing knowledge to faith, philosophy to theology. Thus, in Averroism an antitheolog-ical tendency revealed itself—that “joyous free thinking,” which, as Engels put it, came to the Romance peoples from the Arabs and paved the way for the materialism of the 18th century (see his Dialectic of Nature, 1969, p. 7). Averroism was disseminated in Western Europe as a result of the Latin translations of ibn-Rushd’s works; its main representative there was Siger de Brabant, who was criticized by Thomas Aquinas in De unitate intellectus contra Averrois-tas. The persecution of the Averroists by the Catholic Church did not end their influence on European philosophy, as the appearance of the Spanish philosopher Lully in the 13th century demonstrates. In Italy, especially at the University of Padua, Averroism remained an influence until the 16th century. In 1513, Averroism was condemned by the Benevento council.

REFERENCES

Renan, E. Averroes i averroizm. Kiev, 1903. (Translated from French.)
Trakhtenberg, O. Ocherki po istorii zap.-evrop. sr.-vek. filosofii. Moscow, 1957.
Ley, H. Ocherk istorii sr.-vek. materializma. Moscow, 1962. (Translated from German.)
O’Leary, De Lacy E. Arabic Thought and Its Place in History. London, 1939.

S. N. GRIGORIAN

References in periodicals archive ?
The historical paradox is that Thomas, himself insisting on the twin truth of both eternity and creatio of the world, came to impute the principle of duplex veritas to the so-called Latin Averroists (Siger of Brabant, Boethius of Dacia) and to their doctrine of the unity of intellect which, inspired by Averroes, had had, in fact, quite an eminent role in preparing a new unison between faith and reason in the nascent Teutonic philosophy.
49) Taken in this light, the Collationes in Hexaemeron are Bonaventure's evangelical invitation to go beyond the limits of the ontology, science, and way of life proposed by the so-called "Latin Averroists," that is, de Libera's "lay philosophical ascetics" in the Parisian school of arts.
The so-called Latin Averroists (of whom Siger of Brabant and Boethius of Dacia were the leading figures) were so impressed by Aristotle's philosophical system, and by the fact that it had been developed without the aid of any divine revelation, that they believed the philosophical sciences could dispense with theology altogether.
Later in book 15 Ficino writes: "To confute the many fallacious arguments with which the Averroists obstinately strive to trap the Platonists, we must remember that it is not over and beyond nature for the human soul to be joined with the body; but that it is natural for this eternal soul to be joined to an eternal and heavenly body forever but only for a limited time to the temporal and earthly body" (15.
Antonio Gagliardi (whose list of works cited consists of five items, four of which written by Gagliardi himself) argues that Cavalcanti has followed the Averroist path of the species intellegibilis, while Dante would be on the side of the Christian itinerary in order to obtain the visio beatifica.
The Averroist professors, on their part, made connivance easy by drawing the distinction, so often drawn since, between philosophy and religion.
To a degree, this was the result of the broadening incursion of Averroist theories of human happiness, to which Aquinas reacted by distinguishing the natural and supernatural goals of human life, (68) and by rejecting the philosophic ideal itself.
If the governing elites have previously been rationalist, Platonic and Averroist in their strategy for power and culture, they now see the possibility of a more thorough-going control.
This is not to gainsay the value of what is on offer: the Introduction constitutes Taylor's most thorough statement yet concerning Averroist intellection, a topic on which Taylor has laboured for decades.
His mission was to convert Muslims and Jews (including even Averroist commentators on Aquinas) to Christianity, managing along the way to obscure the distinction between faith and reason.
The Maimonidean or Averroist distinction between exoteric and esoteric truths dovetails with the charge of Machiavellianism when the esoteric view is identified as atheism.
67) Bonaventure was involved in the Averroist controversy at the University of Paris during his tenure as Minister General of the Franciscan Order.